ADVAITA SAMKHYA
Glossary of Terms

A

Abhava:
Absence, destruction.
Abhi:
Toward.
Abhibhava:
Overpowering, suppressive.  See Vrittivada.
Abhinivesha:
Inertia, as opposed to seeking liberation (mumukshutva).  See Klesha.
Abhinna:
Uncut, unbroken, uninterrupted.
Abhyantara:
Internal, as opposed to external (bahya).  See Pranayama.
Abhyasa:
Repetition, repeated performance, continued application.  See Sadhana.
Achintya:
Incomprehensible, unthinkable.
Adana:
Taking, seizing.
Adharma:
Unlawful.  See Klishta Vritti.
Adhigama:
Attainment, acquisition.
Adhyavasaya:
Ascertainment, determination, apprehension.
Adiguru:
First teacher, as opposed to first instruction (adishasana).  See Ishvara.
Adishasana:
First instruction, as opposed to first teacher (adiguru).  See Om.
Adrishta:
Unseen, invisible, future.
Advaita:
1) Non-dual, non-duality, as opposed to duality (dvaita). 
2) The non-dual state, corresponding to spirit (purusha).  The first of the ten states.  See Avastha.
Advaita Samkhya:
Non-dual Samkhya, as opposed to Dual Samkhya (Dvaita Samkhya).  Samkhya as defined by the Advaita Samkhya SutrasSee Samkhya.
Advaita Samkhya Bhashya:
The commentary of the Advaita Samkhya Sutras by Sam K. Vyas.  See below.
Advaita Samkhya Sutras:
The non-dual text of Samkhya compiled by Sam K. Vyas.  See Advaita Samkhya.
Advaita Vedanta:
Non-dual Vedanta, as opposed to Dual Vedanta (Dvaita Vedanta).  The system of Vedanta expounded by Adi Shankaracharya.  See Vedanta.
Advaita Yoga:
Non-dual Yoga, as opposed to Dual Yoga (Dvaita Yoga).  Yoga as defined by the Advaita Yoga SutrasSee Yoga.
Advaita Yoga Bhashya:
The commentary of the Advaita Yoga Sutras by Sam K. Vyas.  See below.
Advaita Yoga Sutras:
The non-dual text of Yoga compiled by Sam K. Vyas.  See Advaita Yoga.
Agni:
Fire.  The seventh principle (tattva) of physics (tamas) and the fourth gross element (mahabhuta).  Resonates with the sense (indriya) of seeing/moving (chakshus/pada) and the subtle element (tanmatra) of appearance (rupa).  See Mahabhuta.
Agraha:
Non-grasping.
Aham:
1) Ego, self-consciousness. 
2) See Ahamsharira.
“Aham brahmasmi”:
“I am the source.”  See Mahavakya.
Ahamkara:
See Aham.
Ahamsharira:
The ego body.  The second principle (tattva) of the soul (jiva) and the fourth of the seven bodies (sharira saptaka).  Part of a triad (traya) that includes the intellectual sheath (vijnanamayakosha) and royal yoga (rajayoga).  See Sharira.
Ahamta:
The egoic nature.  See above.
Ahimsa:
Non-harming, as opposed to harming (himsa).  The path of least harm (patha of avara himsa).  The first of the five restraints (yamas).  See Yama.
Aishvara:
Belonging to the oversoul (ishvara).  See Ishvara.
Akasha:
Ether.  The sixth principle (tattva) of physics (tamas) and the third gross element (mahabhuta).  Resonates with the sense (indriya) of hearing/speaking (shrotra/vach) and the subtle element (tanmatra) of shabda (sound).  See Mahabhuta.
Aklishta:
Unafflicted, as opposed to afflicted (klishta).  See below.
Aklishta Vritti:
An unafflicted modification, as opposed to an afflicted modification (klishta vritti).  See Vrittivada.
Akshepin:
Transcending.
Alakshana:
Absence of distinguishing marks, indistinguishable.
Alaukika:
Nonlocal, as opposed to local (laukika).
Alaukika Patha:
Nonlocal dimension, as opposed to local dimension (laukika patha).  See Triguna Brahman.
Amanibhava:
“No mind.”  The non-grasping mind (agraha manas).
Amsha:
Part, portion, fragment.
Anabhighata:
Untroubled.
Anagata:
Yet to come.
Ananda:
1) Bliss, as opposed to emotion (rajas).  The fifth of the ten strings (dashaguna).  Part of the spiritual triad (paurusha traya).  See Guna.
2) See below.
Anandamayakosha:
The bliss sheath.  The first principle (tattva) of bliss (ananda) and the second of the seven sheaths (saptakosha).  Part of a triad (traya) that includes the divine body (devasharira) and meditation yoga (dhyanayoga).  See Kosha.
Ananta:
Infinite, nonfinite.
Anatman:
The non-self, as opposed to the self (atman).
Anavachcheda:
Undivided, unlimited.
Anavachchinna:
See above.
Anitya:
Impermanence, impermanent.
Aniyama:
Without observance, unobservant.
Annamayakosha:
The food sheath.  Synonymous with the gross body (sthulasharira).  See Kosha.
Antahshanti:
Inner peace.  See Samtosha.
Antar:
Inner, as opposed to outer (bahir).
Antaranga:
Inner limb, as opposed to outer limb (bahiranga).  See Ashtanga.
Antaraya:
Obstacle, impediment, hindrance.
Antaryoga:
Inner yoga, as opposed to outer yoga (bahiryoga).  See Yoga.
Anubandha:
Qualification, prerequisite.
Anubhava:
Experience.
Anumana:
Inference, deduction.  See Pramana.
Anunada:
Resonance.  The vibrational harmony that exists between similar strings and principles (gunas and tattvas).  See Gunavada.
Anuvritti:
Following, obeying, emulating.
Anyonyam:
Mutually.
Apana:
Downward breath, or energy, as opposed to upward (prana).
Apanna:
Entered.
Aparamrishta:
Unaffected, untouched.
Aparanta:
Final end.
Aparigraha:
Non-possessiveness, which is renunciation (tyaga) of unnecessary objects (nishkarana arthas).  The fifth of the five restraints (yamas).  See Yama.
Apophatic Way:
See Neti Neti.
Apradhana:
Secondary, subordinate, minor, as opposed to major (pradhana).
Apradhana Saptaka:
The minor heptad, as opposed to the major triad (pradhana traya).  See Saptaguna Brahman.
Apradhanika:
Secondary, as opposed to primary (pradhanika).
Ara:
One of the twelve spokes (dvadashara) of the wheel of time (kalachakra).  See Kalavada.
Artha:
1) Object, thing.
2) Meaning.
As:
The Sanskrit verb “to be.”  Its conjugations represent three ontological levels of being.  They are “nonexistence” (asat), “potential existence” (syat), and “existence” (sat).  See Satya.
“As above, so below”:
The Hermetic axiom which summarizes the recursion (pratyavartana) of the strings (gunas) as the principles (tattvas).  See Gunavada.
Asamprayoga:
Dissociation, disunion.
Asamyagdrishti:
The wrong view, as opposed to the right view (samyagdrishti).  See Vishamadrishti.
Asana:
1) Pose.
2) The practice of sitting.  The still, comfortable position of meditation.  The third of the eight limbs (ashtanga).  See Ashtanga.
Asat:
1) Nonexistence, as opposed to existence (sat).
2) Nonexistence.  One of three ontological levels of being.  See As.
Ashaya:
Receptacle, abode.  Each of the four afflictions (klesha chatushtaya) has an abode.  Nature (prakriti), mind (sattva), emotion (rajas), and physics (tamas) are the abodes of ignorance (avidya), egoism (asmita), attachment and aversion (ragadvesha), and inertia (abhinivesha).  Likewise, each of the four remedies (bheshaja chatushtaya) has an abode.  Spirit (purusha), existence (sat), bliss (ananda), and consciousness (chit) are the abodes of wisdom (vidya), seeking liberation (mumukshutva), non-attachment (vairagya), and discernment (viveka).  See Guna.
Ashesha:
Complete, whole, without remainder.
Asita:
Seated.
Asmita:
Egoism, as opposed to discernment (viveka).  See Klesha.
Ashraya:
Support, supportive.  See Vrittivada.
Ashtama:
1) Eighth.
2) The eighth, or lucid, state (spashta avastha), corresponding to mind (sattva).  See Avastha.
Ashtanga:
Eight limbs.  The outer limbs (bahirangas) are the restraints (yamas), the observances (niyamas), sitting (asana), energy extension (pranayama), and withdrawal (pratyahara).  The inner limbs (antarangas) are concentration (dharana), meditation (dhyana), and absorption (samadhi).
Asteya:
Non-stealing, which is taking only (adana eva) what is freely given (svairakam datta).  The third of the five restraints (yamas).  See Yama.
Asvarupa:
One’s false nature, as opposed to one’s true nature (svarupa).
Atheism:
See Theism.
“Atma anatma viveka”:
“Discerning between the self and the non-self.”  Distinguishing between the self (atman) and its sheaths and bodies (koshas and shariras).
Atma Traya:
Three selves.  See below.
Atmavichara:
Self-inquiry.
Atman:
The self, as opposed to the non-self (anatman).  The self is identical to the source (brahman).  There are three selves (atma traya).  The supreme self (paramatman) is the unqualified source (nirguna brahman); the thread-self (sutratman) is the threefold source (triguna brahman); the living self (jivatman) is the sevenfold source (saptaguna brahman).  See Brahman.
Atmajnana:
Self-knowledge.
Ava:
Descending.  See Avasarpini.
Avara:
Least, lowest degree.
Avarana:
Veil, covering.
Avasarpini:
The descending arc, as opposed to the ascending arc (utsarpini).  See Kalavada.
Avastha:
1) One of the ten states of the ground state (mula avastha).  They are waking (jagrat), dream (svapna), lucid (spashta), deep sleep (sushupti), witness (sakshi), divine (daiva), order (rita), union (yoga), dual (dvaita), and non-dual (advaita).  They correspond to physics (tamas), emotion (rajas), mind (sattva), the soul (jiva), consciousness (chit), bliss (ananda), existence (sat), the oversoul (ishvara), nature (prakriti), and spirit (purusha).  See Guna.
2) One of the four classical states.  They are waking (jagrat), dream (svapna), deep sleep (sushupti), and fourth (chaturtha).
Avasthana:
Residing, abiding, dwelling.
Avidya:
Ignorance, as opposed to wisdom (vidya).  See Klesha.
Avidyamaya:
Unwise measuring, as opposed to wise measuring (vidyamaya).  See Maya.
Aviveka:
Non-discrimination or non-discernment, as opposed to discernment (viveka).
Avivekin:
An undiscerning or unwise person, as opposed to a discerning person (vivekin).
Avritti:
Frequency.  The rate of vibration of the strings (gunas).  See Gunavada.
Avyakta:
Unmanifest, as opposed to manifest (vyakta).
Avyapadeshya:
Undefinable, indescribable.
Avyathya:
Unshakable, unwavering.
“Ayam atma brahma”:
“This self is the source.”  See Mahavakya.
Ayama:
Without restraint, unrestrained.
Ayama:
Expansion, extension.
Axiology:
The study of value and valuation.  See Darshana.

B

Baddha:
Bound, as opposed to free (mukta).
Bahir:
Outer, as opposed to inner (antar).
Bahiranga:
Outer limb, as opposed to inner limb (antaranga).  See Ashtanga.
Bahiryoga:
Outer yoga, as opposed to inner yoga (antaryoga).  See Yoga.
Bahya:
External, as opposed to internal (abhyantara).  See Pranayama.
Bandha:
Binding, bondage, as opposed to liberation (moksha).
“Bha of surya-sahasra”:
“Light of a thousand suns.”  A phrase from Bhagavad Gita 11.12, which describes the causal body (karanasharira).  See Anusharira.
Bhagavad Gita:
“The Lord’s Song.”  Part of the epic Mahabharata.  Attributed to Veda Vyasa.
Bhakti:
1) Devotion.
2) See Bhaktiyoga.
Bhakti Yoga:
The book on devotion yoga by Swami Vivekananda.
Bhaktiyoga:
Devotion yoga.  Part of outer yoga (bahiryoga).  The third principle (tattva) of emotion (rajas) and the sixth of the seven yogas (yoga saptaka).  Part of a triad (traya) that includes the love sheath (kamamayakosha) and the subtle body (lingasharira).  See Yoga.
Bhashya:
Commentary.
Bhava:
1) Rebirth, as opposed to law (dharma).  See Bhavasarpini.
2) A thing, as opposed to a law (dharma).  See Vrittivada.
Bhavana:
1) Contemplation, meditation.
2) Remembering, recollection.
Bhavasarpini:
The arc of rebirth, as opposed to the arc of law (dharmasarpini).  See Kalavada.
Bheshaja:
Remedy, as opposed to affliction (klesha).  The four remedies (bheshaja chatushtaya) are wisdom (vidya), seeking liberation (mumukshutva), non-attachment (vairagya), and discernment (viveka).  Wisdom is equal vision (samadrishti) of the seer and the seen (drashta and drishya).  It’s the field (kshetra) of the subsequent remedies (uttara bheshajas).  Seeking liberation is overcoming inertia (jayana abhinivesha).  Non-attachment is lack of desire (vaitrishnya) for attachment and aversion (ragadvesha).  And discernment is distinguishing (vichchedana) one’s true nature from egoism (svarupa from asmita).  Each remedy has its own abode (ashaya).  See Ashaya.
Bheshaja Chatushtaya:
Four remedies.  See above.
Bhumi:
Ground, foundation.
Bhutashuddhi:
Clearing the elements.  The definition of purification (shaucha).  See Mahabhuta.
Bija:
Seed, primary cause.  See Satkaryavada.
Brahmacharya:
Non-wasting, which is preservation of energy (rakshana of prana).  The fourth of the five restraints (yamas).  See Yama.
Brahman:
The source.  Literally “expansion.”  The unqualified source (nirguna brahman) is the infinite point of origin (ananta muladesha) and final cause (karyakarana).  It’s completely devoid of all qualities, or strings (gunas).  The threefold source (triguna brahman) preexists within the unqualified source as the cause (karana).  It includes spirit, nature, and the oversoul (purusha, prakriti, and ishvara).  They’re the formal cause, the material cause, and the efficient cause (pratirupakarana, upadanakarana, and nimittakarana).  The sevenfold source (saptaguna brahman) preexists within the threefold source as the effect (karya).  It includes existence (sat), bliss (ananda), consciousness (chit), the soul (jiva), mind (sattva), emotion (rajas), and physics (tamas).  The unqualified source is the supreme self (paramatman); the threefold source is the thread-self (sutratman); the sevenfold source is the living self (jivatman).  The unqualified source is nonexistence (asat); the threefold source is potential existence (syat); the sevenfold source is existence (sat).  Each being a conjugation of the Sanskrit verb “to be” (as).  The unqualified source is the absolute reality (paramarthika satya); the threefold source is the primary reality (pradhanika satya); the sevenfold source is the transactional reality (vyavaharika satya).  The threefold source plus the sevenfold source is the complete tenfold source (purna dashaguna brahman).  It’s symbolized by the ten dots of the Pythagorean Tetractys.
Buddha:
1) Awakened.
2) Gautama Siddhartha, the founder of Buddhism.
3) The deep sleep state (sushupti avastha) after it’s awakened.  See Sushupti.
Buddhi:
See Vijnana.
Budhya:
To be awakened.  See Sushupti.

C

Calabi-Yau Manifold:
In modern string theory, refers to the compactification of the six extra dimensions into circles.  See String Theory.
Cataphatic Way:
See Iti Iti.
“Causeless Cause”:
See Karyakarana.
Chaitanya:
Consciousness.  See Chetana.
Chakra:
Circle, wheel, cycle.
Chakra:
Circular, cyclical.
“Chakras antar chakras”:
“Wheels within wheels.”  See Kalachakra.
Chakshus:
See below.
Chakshus/Pada:
Seeing/moving.  The seventh principle (tattva) of mind (sattva) and the fourth sense (indriya).  Resonates with the subtle element (tanmatra) of appearance (rupa) and the gross element (mahabhuta) of fire (agni).  See Indriya.
Chaturtha:
1) Fourth.
2) The fourth, or order state, corresponding to existence (sat).  See Avastha.
Chatushpatha:
Four dimensions.  See Patha.
Chatushtaya:
1) Tetrad.  A single unit with four parts.
2) The symbol of Advaita Samkhya which contains much of its teachings in symbolic form.  A variation of the Pythagorean Tetractys.  See Tetractys.
Chela:
Disciple, as opposed to teacher (guru).
Chetana:
Conscious, as opposed to subconscious (jada).
Chin:
The compound form of “chit.”  See Chit.
Chinmayakosha:
The consciousness sheath.  The first principle (tattva) of consciousness (chit) and the third of the seven sheaths (saptakosha).  Part of a triad (traya) that includes the conscious body (chittasharira) and concentration yoga (dharanayoga).  See Kosha.
Chit:
1) Consciousness, as opposed to mind (sattva).  The sixth of the ten strings (dashaguna).  Part of the paurusha traya (spiritual triad).  See Guna.
2) See above.
Chitta:
1) The mind-field.
2) The conscious nature.  See Chittasharira.
“Chitta vritti nirodha”:
“Cessation of the modifications of the mind-field.”  The stated goal of Dvaita Yoga.  See Dvaita Yoga.
Chittasharira:
The conscious body.  The storehouse of conscious impressions (chetana samskaras).  The second principle (tattva) of consciousness (chit) and the third of the seven bodies (sharira saptaka).  Part of a triad (traya) that includes the consciousness sheath (chinmayakosha) and concentration yoga (dharanayoga).  See Sharira.
Cosmology:
The study of the origin and development of the universe.  See Darshana.

D

Daiva:
The divine state, corresponding to bliss (ananda).  The fifth of the ten states.  See Avastha.
Darshana:
Philosophy, view.  The six orthodox philosophies (astika darshanas) of Hinduism are Nyaya, Purva Mimamsa, Samkhya, Uttara Mimamsa (Vedanta), Vaisheshika, and Yoga.  They’re based on the Vedas.  The heterodox philosophies (nastika darshanas) include Buddhism, Charvaka, Jainism, etc.  They aren’t based on the Vedas but contain valuable wisdom.  The subject of philosophy is divided into branches, such as ontology, cosmology (spatial and temporal), axiology, ethics, and epistemology.
Dasha:
Ten.
Dashaguna:
1) Tenfold.
2) Ten qualities, ten strings.  See Guna.
Dashaguna Brahman:
The tenfold source.  The completion (purnata) of the source (brahman).  Related to the Pythagorean decad.  See Brahman.
Dashaka:
Decad.  A single unit with ten parts.
Dashama:
1) Tenth.
2) The tenth, or waking, state (jagrat avastha), corresponding to physics (tamas).  See Avastha.
Dashatattva:
Tenfold principle.  Each string (guna) of the sevenfold source (saptaguna brahman) has a tenfold principle.  They’re unique recursions of the tenfold source (dashaguna brahman).  See Tattva.
Datta:
Given, granted, presented.
Desha:
Point, place, space.
Deva:
1) Divine. 
2) See Devasharira.
Devachitta:
Divine will.  See below.
Devasharira:
The divine body.  Synonymous with divine will (devachitta).  The second principle (tattva) of bliss (ananda) and the second of the seven bodies (sharira saptaka).  Part of a triad (traya) that includes the bliss sheath (anandamayakosha) and meditation yoga (dhyanayoga).  See sharira.
Devata:
The divine nature.  See above.
Dharana:
1) Concentration.  The sixth of the eight limbs (ashtanga).  See Ashtanga.
2) See below.
Dharanayoga:
Concentration yoga.  Part of inner yoga (antaryoga).  The third principle (tattva) of consciousness (chit) and the third of the seven yogas (yoga saptaka).  Part of a triad (traya) that includes the consciousness sheath (chinmayakosha) and the conscious body (chittasharira).  See Yoga.
Dharma:
1) Law, as opposed to rebirth (bhava).  See below.
2) A law, as opposed to a thing (bhava).  See Vrittivada.
Dharmasarpini:
The arc of law, as opposed to the arc of rebirth (bhavasarpini).  See Kalavada.
Dhyana:
1) Meditation.  The seventh of the eight limbs (ashtanga).  See Ashtanga.
2) See below.
Dhyanayoga:
Meditation yoga.  Part of inner yoga (antaryoga).  The third principle (tattva) of bliss (ananda) and the second of the seven yogas (yoga saptaka).  Part of a triad (traya) that includes the bliss sheath (anandamayakosha) and the divine body (devasharira).  See Yoga.
Dikshatka:
Six directions.  See Shadguna.
Dirgha:
Long, a long duration.
Dirgham:
Slowly.
Drashta:
The seer.  Part of a triad (traya) that includes the seen and the act of seeing (drishya and drishti).  See Purusha.
Dridha:
Steady, stable.
Drishti:
The act of seeing, viewing.  Part of a triad (traya) that includes the seer and the seen (drashta and drishya).  See Ishvara.
Drishya:
The seen.  Part of a triad (traya) that includes the seer and the act of seeing (drashta and drishti).  See Prakriti.
Duhkha:
1) Suffering, as opposed to happiness (sukha).
2) Uncomfortable, as opposed to comfortable (sukha).
3) The separation (viyoga) of the knower and the known (jna and jneya).
Dvadasha:
Twelve.
Dvadashama:
Twelfth.
Dvadashara:
Twelve spokes.  See Ara.
Dvadashataya:
Twelvefold, consisting of twelve parts.
Dvaita:
1) Dual, duality, as opposed to non-duality (advaita).
2) The dual state, corresponding to nature (prakriti).  The second of the ten states.  See Avastha.
Dvaita Samkhya:
Dual Samkhya, as opposed to Non-dual Samkhya (Advaita Samkhya).  Samkhya as defined by the Samkhya KarikaSee Samkhya.
Dvaita Yoga:
Dual Yoga, as opposed to Non-dual Yoga (Advaita Yoga).  Yoga as defined by the Yoga SutrasSee Yoga.
Dvamdva:
1) Pair of opposites.
2) One of the four pairs of opposite strings (gunas).  They are spirit and nature (purusha and prakriti), existence and physics (sat and tamas), bliss and emotion (ananda and rajas), and consciousness and mind (chit and sattva).  See Guna.
Dvesha:
Aversion, as opposed to attachment (raga).  See Ragadvesha.
Dvitiya:
1) Second.
2) The second, or dual state (dvaita avastha), corresponding to nature (prakriti).  See Avastha.

E

Eka:
1) One, alone, solitary. 
2) Monad, a single unit.
Ekagra:
One-pointed, single-focused.
Ekagrata:
One-pointedness.
Ekatanata:
Continuation.
Ekatra:
Together, taken as one.
Epistemology:
The study of the origin, scope, and validity of knowledge.  See Darshana.
Ethics:
The study of moral conduct or right behavior.  See Darshana.
Eva:
Only, merely, just.
Extra Dimensions:
1) The six hidden dimensions in string theory.  See String Theory.
2) Existence (sat), bliss (ananda), consciousness (chit), the soul (jiva), mind (sattva), and emotion (rajas) when veiled by physics (tamas).  See Kalavada.

F

Four-Dimensional Space:
See Saptaguna Brahman.
Four Noble Truths:
Part of the Dhammacakkappavattana Sutta, wherein the Buddha discusses suffering (duhkha) in terms of disease, cause, remedy, and prescription.
Fractal:
A geometrical shape wherein the parts reflect the whole.  See Pratyavartana.

G

Gandha:
Odor.  The tenth principle (tattva) of emotion (rajas) and the seventh subtle element (tanmatra).  Resonates with the sense (indriya) of smelling/eliminating (ghrana/payu) and the gross element (mahabhuta) of earth (prithvi).  See Tanmatra.
Gati:
Procession, movement, course, path, way.
Ghrana:
See below.
Ghrana/Payu:
Smelling/eliminating.  The tenth principle (tattva) of mind (sattva) and the seventh sense (indriya).  Resonates with the subtle element (tanmatra) of odor (gandha) and the gross element (mahabhuta) of earth (prithvi).  See Indriya.
Guna:
1) String.  A series of vibrating points.  Synonymous with state (avastha).  See below.
2) Quality.  The three classical qualities (triguna) are purity (sattva), passion (rajas), and inertia (tamas).
Gunavada:
The string theory of Advaita Samkhya.  The corollary of the doctrine of preexistence (satkaryavada) and the parent theory of the doctrine of time (kalavada).  It states that the origin (mula), the unqualified source (nirguna brahman), is apparently changed (vivartita) through tenfold vibration (dashaguna spanda).  The origin is nondimensional space.  The four dimensions (chatushpatha) are measurable pairs of opposites (prameya dvamdvas).  Spirit and nature (purusha and prakriti) are the nonlocal pair of opposites (alaukika dvamdva).  They’re united (samyukta) by the oversoul (ishvara), thus: {1, 3} ∪ {3, 2}.  This major triad (pradhana traya) is the threefold source (triguna brahman).  It’s undifferentiated and unmanifest (nirvikalpa and avyakta).  The combined equality (samyukta samya) of its sixfold inequality (shadguna vaishamya) is the sevenfold source (saptaguna brahman).  The six strings (shadguna) being permutations, thus: 3! = 6.  And the seventh being their combination (samyoga).  This minor heptad (apradhana saptaka) includes existence (sat), bliss (ananda), consciousness (chit), the soul (jiva), mind (sattva), emotion (rajas), and physics (tamas).  They’re differentiated and manifest (savikalpa and vyakta).  Existence, bliss, and consciousness are the spiritual triad (paurusha traya); mind, emotion, and physics are the material triad (prakrita traya).  They’re symbolized by the upward and downward facing triangles of the six-pointed star (shatkona).  They’re united by the soul, thus: {4, 5, 6, 7} ∪ {7, 8, 9, 10}.  Furthermore, existence and physics, bliss and emotion, and consciousness and mind are the local pairs of opposites (laukika dvamdvas).  They’re united by the soul, thus: {4, 7} ∪ {7, 10}, {5, 7} ∪ {7, 9}, and {6, 7} ∪ {7, 8}.  These six directions (dikshatka) are symbolized by the three axes of the Cartesian coordinate system and the intersection at (0, 0, 0).  Moreover, each of the seven strings (saptaguna) is the recursive origin (punaravartin mula) of a tenfold principle (dashatattva).  Each tenfold principle consists of a threefold principle (tritattva) and a sevenfold principle (saptatattva).  This yields seventy principles (saptatitattva), of which twenty-one are unmanifest (avyakta) and forty-nine are manifest (vyakta).  The former group includes the seven sheaths, the seven bodies, and the seven yogas (saptakosha, sharira saptaka, and yoga saptaka).  The latter group includes the senses, the subtle elements, and the gross elements (indriyas, tanmatras, and mahabhutas).  The basis of symmetry (prama of samamiti) is numerical frequency of vibration (samkhya avritti of spanda).  This is best summarized by the Hermetic axiom, “As above, so below.”  The ten strings being the “above” and the seventy principles being the “below.”  Symmetry produces resonance (anunada), which allows information exchange (samvedana).  See Satkaryavada.
Guru:
Teacher, as opposed to disciple (chela).

H

Hamsa:
Swan.
Heya:
To be avoided.
Himsa;:
Harming, as opposed to non-harming (ahimsa).

I

Indriya:
1) Power, force.
2) Sense.  Historically, the senses were divided into pairs of knowledge senses and action senses (jnanendriyas and karmendriyas).  But they originate as non-dual functions of the mind.  There are seven senses, but only five are named.  They are hearing/speaking (shrotra/vach), seeing/moving (chakshus/pada), feeling/grasping (tvach/pani), tasting/reproducing (jihva/upastha), and smelling/eliminating (ghrana/payu).  The subtle and gross elements (tanmatras and mahabhutas) are the subtle and gross objects of the senses.  See Tattva.
Indriyaja:
“Born of the senses,” as opposed to “born of union” (yogaja).  See Pratyaksha.
Ishtadevata:
Chosen deity.
Ishvara:
God, lord, the oversoul, as opposed to the soul (jiva).  The union (samyoga) of spirit and nature (purusha and prakriti).  The efficient cause (nimittakarana).  The individualized spirit (purusha-vishesha) unaffected (aparamrishta) by the afflictions (kleshas).  The unsurpassed seed (niratishaya bija) of all knowledge (sarvajnana).  Undivided by time (anavachcheda by kala), it’s the first teacher (adiguru).  The reciter of om (vachaka of pranava), which is the first instruction (adishasana).  The third of the ten strings (dashaguna).  See Guna.
Ishvarapranidhana:
Surrender to the oversoul, which is emulating it (anuvritti ishvara).  The fifth of the five observances (niyamas).  See Niyama.
“Iti Iti”:
“This, that,” as opposed to “not this, not that” (neti neti).  The cataphatic way, or via positiva.  The experience (anubhava) whereby the states (avasthas) are progressively integrated, revealing the origin (mula).  See Avastha.

J

Jada:
Subconscious, as opposed to conscious (chetana).
Jagat:
The world, the universe.
Jagrat:
The waking state, corresponding to physics (tamas).  The tenth of the ten states.  A “dream within a dream.”  See Avastha.
Jala:
Water.  The ninth principle (tattva) of physics (tamas) and the sixth gross element (mahabhuta).  Resonates with the sense (indriya) of tasting/reproducing (jihva/upastha) and the subtle element (tanmatra) of flavor (rasa).  See Mahabhuta.
Janana:
Generative, productive.  See Vrittivada.
Janma:
Birth, incarnation.
Japa:
Repetition, recitation.
Japita:
Repeated, recited.
Jati:
Birth.
Jayana:
Conquering, subduing, overcoming.
Jihva:
See below.
Jihva/Upastha:
Tasting/reproducing.  The ninth principle (tattva) of mind (sattva) and the sixth sense (indriya).  Resonates with the subtle element (tanmatra) of flavor (rasa) and the gross element (mahabhuta) of water (jala).  See Indriya.
Jiva:
1) Life, soul, as opposed to oversoul (ishvara).  A part (amsha) of the oversoul.  The seventh of the ten strings (dashaguna).  See Guna.
2) A living being.  See Vrittivada.
Jivana:
Living.
Jivatman:
Living self.  See Atman.
Jna:
The knower.  Part of a triad (traya) that includes the knowledge and the known (jnana and jneya).  See Purusha.
Jnana:
1) The knowledge.  Part of a triad (traya) that includes the knower and the known (jna and jneya).  See Ishvara.
2) See Jnanayoga.
Jnana Yoga:
The book on knowledge yoga by Swami Vivekananda.
Jnanayoga:
Knowledge yoga.  Specifically, knowledge which belongs to the mind.  Part of outer yoga (bahiryoga).  The third principle (tattva) of mind (sattva) and the fifth of the seven yogas (yoga saptaka).  Part of a triad (traya) that includes the mental sheath (manomayakosha) and the name body (namasharira).  See Yoga.
Jnanendriya:
The knowledge aspect of a sense (indriya).  The five named knowledge senses (jnanendriyas) being hearing (shrotra), seeing (chakshus), feeling (tvach), tasting (jihva), and smelling (ghrana).  See Indriya.
Jneya:
The known.  Part of a triad (traya) that includes the knower and the knowledge (jna and jnana).  See Prakriti.
Juhvana:
Offering, sacrificing.

K

Kaivalya:
1) Isolation. 
2) Absolute unity.  See Nirguna Brahman.
Kala:
Time.  See below.
Kalachakra:
The wheel of time.  Symbolized by the mythical snake that swallows its tail (ouroboros).  See below.
Kalavada:
The doctrine of time.  The corollary of string theory (gunavada) and the parent theory of the doctrine of modification (vrittivada).  It states that time (kala) is the cyclical passage (chakra samsara) toward equality (samya).  It’s the attempt to equalize the inequality (vaishamya) between the spiritual and material triads (paurusha and prakrita trayas).  The seven strings (saptaguna) are enclosed (samvrita) by the twelve spokes (dvadashara) of the wheel of time (kalachakra).  They’re successive (parampara) and impermanent (anitya) in that they periodically cede the focus to their successors.  Furthermore, they’re dependent (pratitya) in that they rely on their predecessors like links in a chain.  Existence (sat) is twelve o’clock, bliss (ananda) is one and eleven o’clock, and so on down to physics (tamas) at six o’clock.  Each rotation consists of four overlapping arcs (sarpinis).  Each arc is delineated by a boundary line (samdhi).  The two vertical arcs are the descending arc and the ascending arc (avasarpini and utsarpini).  They’re synonymous with evolution and involution (samchara and pratisamchara).  The descending arc turns from the twelfth (dvadashama) spoke to the sixth (shashtha); the ascending arc turns from the sixth spoke back to the twelfth; the twelfth and sixth spokes are the boundary line.  The two horizontal arcs are the arc of rebirth and the arc of law (bhavasarpini and dharmasarpini).  They’re synonymous with suffering and happiness (duhkha and sukha).  The arc of law turns from the third (tritiya) spoke to the ninth (navama); the arc of rebirth turns from the ninth spoke back to the third; the third and ninth spokes are the boundary line.  The wheel of time consists of “wheels within wheels” (chakras antar chakras).  See Gunavada.
Kama:
1) Love, as opposed to attachment (raga).
2) See below.
Kamamayakosha:
The love sheath.  The first principle (tattva) of emotion (rajas) and the sixth of the seven sheaths (saptakosha).  Part of a triad (traya) that includes the subtle body (lingasharira) and devotion yoga (bhaktiyoga).  See Kosha.
Karana:
1) Cause, as opposed to effect (karya). 
2) One of the four causes (karana chatushtaya) for every change proposed by the Ancient Greek philosopher, Aristotle.  They are the final cause, or purpose (karyakarana), the formal cause (pratirupakarana), the material cause (upadanakarana), and the efficient cause (nimittakarana).  See Brahman.
3) See Karanasharira.
Karana Chatushtaya:
Four causes.  See above.
Karanasharira:
The causal body.  The “light of a thousand suns” (bha of surya-sahasra).  The second principle (tattva) of existence (sat) and the first of the seven bodies (sharira saptaka).  Part of a triad (traya) that includes the existence sheath (sanmayakosha) and absorption yoga (samadhiyoga).  See Sharira.
Karanata:
The causal nature.  See above.
Karma:
1) Action. 
2) See Karmayoga.
Karma Yoga:
The book on action yoga by Swami Vivekananda.
Karmabhumi:
The sphere of action.  See Tamas.
Karmashaya:
The abode of karma.  See Karmavada.
Karmavada:
The doctrine of karma, which refers to the circular consequences of our actions.  Basically, it states, “what comes around goes around” or “you reap what you sow.”  Past actions (vrittis) originating from the afflictions (kleshas) are stored in the abode of karma (karmashaya).  They’re to be experienced (vedaniya) again in future births (adrishta janmas).  Advaita Yoga adopts the fundamental tenets of this doctrine in its doctrine of modification (vrittivada), wherein karma plays a specific part.  See Vrittivada.
Karmayoga:
Action yoga.  Part of outer yoga (bahiryoga).  The third principle (tattva) of physics (tamas) and the seventh of the seven yogas (yoga saptaka).  Part of a triad (traya) that includes the energy sheath (pranamayakosha) and the gross body (sthulasharira).  See Yoga.
Karmendriya:
The action aspect of a sense (indriya).  The five named action senses (karmendriyas) being speaking (vach), moving (pada), grasping (pani), reproducing (upastha), and eliminating (payu).  See Indriya.
Karya:
1) Effect, as opposed to cause (karana).
2) Purpose.  See below.
Karyakarana:
Of the four causes (karana chatushtaya), this is the final cause, or purpose.  For example, the purpose of a clay pot is storage.  The original purpose being the unqualified source (nirguna brahman).  Because the purpose has no direct relationship to manifestation, it’s called the “causeless cause.”  See Karana.
Kaurava:
Relating to or belonging to the Kurus.
Klesha:
Affliction, as opposed to remedy (bheshaja).  The four afflictions (klesha chatushtaya) are ignorance (avidya), egoism (asmita), attachment and aversion (ragadvesha), and inertia (abhinivesha).  Ignorance is unequal vision (vishamadrishti) of the seer and the seen (drashta and drishya).  It’s the field (kshetra) of the subsequent afflictions (uttara kleshas).  Egoism is the false nature (asvarupa) of the seen.  Attachment and aversion are the thrill (mada) of the seen.  And inertia is the binding (bandha) of the seen.  Each affliction has its own abode (asaya).  See Duhkha.
Klesha Chatushtaya:
Four afflictions.  See above.
Klishta:
Afflicted, as opposed to unafflicted (aklishta).  See below.
Klishta Vritti:
An afflicted modification, as opposed to an unafflicted modification (aklishta vritti).  See Vrittivada.
“Klishta vritti nirodha”:
“Cessation of afflicted modifications.”  The stated goal of Advaita Yoga.  See Advaita Yoga.
Kosha:
1) One of the seven sheaths (saptakosha).  They are the existence sheath (sanmayakosha), the bliss sheath (anandamayakosha), the consciousness sheath (chinmayakosha), the intellectual sheath (vijnanamayakosha), the mental sheath (manomayakosha), the love sheath (kamamayakosha), and the energy sheath (pranamayakosha).  They’re spiritual (paurusha), as opposed to the material bodies (prakrita shariras).  See Tattva.
2) One of the five classical sheaths (panchakosha).  They are the food sheath (annamayakosha), the energy sheath (pranamayakosha), the mental sheath (manomayakosha), the intellectual sheath (vijnanamayakosha), and the bliss sheath (anandamayakosha).
Kri:
To do, to make, to perform.  The root of “karma” and “kriya.”
Krama:
Order, series, succession.
Kshana:
Instant, moment.
Kshetra:
Field.
Kshina:
Diminished, worn away, destroyed.
“Kshurasya Dhara”:
“Razor’s edge.”  See Srota.
Kurukshetra:
The field of the Kurus.

L

“The lame man and the blind man”:
A metaphor from Samkhya Karika 21 that describes the relationship between spirit and nature (purusha and prakriti).  They’re likened to two disabled men in a forest.  Spirit is the lame man who must mount the shoulders of the blind man, nature, in order to navigate their surroundings.  The former serves as the guide, and the latter as his vehicle.
Laukika:
Local, as opposed to nonlocal (alaukika).
Laukika Patha:
Local dimension, as opposed to nonlocal dimension (alaukika patha).  See Saptaguna Brahman.
Linga:
1) Subtle. 
2) See below.
3) Middle term.  See Pramana.
Lingasharira:
The subtle body.  The emotional body.  The second principle (tattva) of emotion (rajas) and the sixth of the seven bodies (sharira saptaka).  Part of a triad (traya) that includes the love sheath (kamamayakosha) and devotion yoga (bhaktiyoga).  See Sharira.
Lingata:
The subtle nature.  See above.
Lingin:
Major term.  See Pramana.
Loka:
Sphere, region, location.

M

Ma:
To measure.  See Maya.
Mada:
Intoxication, delight, thrill.  Refers to the effect the afflictions (kleshas) have on us.  See Klesha.
Mahabhuta:
Gross element.  There are seven gross elements, but only five are named.  They are ether (akasha), fire (agni), air (vayu), water (jala), and earth (prithvi).  They’re the gross objects (vishayas) of the senses (indriyas), as opposed to the subtle objects (tanmatras).  See Tattva.
Mahasagara:
The great ocean, as opposed to the stream (srota).  See Nirguna Brahman.
Mahat:
See Vijnana.
Mahavakya:
One of four “great sayings” from the Upanishads.  They are “Thou art that” (tat tvam asi), “I am the source” (aham brahmasmi), “The source is wisdom” (prajnanam brahma), and “This self is the source” (ayam atma brahma).
Mahavrata:
Great vow.  See Yama and Niyama.
Manas:
1) Mind. 
2) See Manomayakosha.
Mandukya Upanishad:
The smallest and arguably the most important Upanishad.  It discusses the waking, dream, and deep sleep states (jagrat, svapna, and sushupti avasthas) as aspects of the om (omkara).  The silence that follows is the fourth state (chaturtha avastha), which is equated to the self (atman).  See Upanishad.
Manomayakosha:
The mental sheath.  The first principle (tattva) of mind (sattva) and the fifth of the seven sheaths (saptakosha).  Part of a triad (traya) that includes the name body (namasharira) and knowledge yoga (jnanayoga).  See Kosha.
Mantra:
1) Verse.
2) Mystical phrase.
Marga:
Path, as opposed to a belief system.
Maya:
Measuring the pairs of opposites (dvamdvas).  Wise measuring leads to liberation (moksha); unwise measuring leads to bondage (bandha).  See Dvamdva.
Mithuna:
Interactive, copulative.  See Vrittivada.
Mithya:
Falsity, as opposed to truth (satya).
Moksha:
Liberation, freedom, as opposed to bondage (bandha).
Monotheism:
See Theism.
Mu:
Binding, confinement.
Muc:
To free, release, or liberate.
Mukta:
Free, as opposed to bound (baddha).
Mula:
1) Origin, root, ground, foundation.  See Nirguna Brahman.
2) Ground state.  See Avastha.
Muladesha:
Point of origin, root point.  See Nirguna Brahman.
Mumukshutva:
Seeking liberation, as opposed to inertia (abhinivesha).  See Bheshaja.

N

Na:
Not, no, nor, neither.
Nairantarya:
Without interruption, continually.
Nama:
1) Name, class, kind.
2) See below.
Namasharira:
The name body.  The mental body.  The storehouse of subconscious impressions (jada samskaras).  The second principle (tattva) of mind (sattva) and the fifth of the seven bodies (sharira saptaka).  Part of a triad (traya) that includes the mental sheath (manomayakosha) and knowledge yoga (jnanayoga).  See Sharira.
Namata:
The mental nature.  See above.
Navama:
1) Ninth.
2) The ninth, or dream, state (svapna avastha), corresponding to emotion (rajas).  See Avastha.
“Neti Neti”:
“Not this, not that,” as opposed to “this, that” (iti iti).  The apophatic way, or via negativa.  The experience (anubhava) whereby the states (avasthas) are progressively negated, revealing the origin (mula).  See Avastha.
Nihshabda:
Silent, silence, as opposed to sound (shabda).
Nihshabda Srota:
The silent current, as opposed to the sound-current (shabda-srota).  See Srota.
Nimittakarana:
Of the four causes (karana chatushtaya), this is the efficient cause.  For example, the efficient cause of a clay pot is the potter.  The original efficient cause being the oversoul (ishvara).  See Karana.
Niratishaya:
Unsurpassed.
Nirbhasa:
Appearance.
Nirbija:
Without seed, or seedless, as opposed to with seed (sabija).  See Bija.
Nirguna:
Without qualities, or unqualified, as opposed to qualified (saguna).  See below.
Nirguna Brahman:
The unqualified source, as opposed to the qualified source (saguna brahman).  Synonymous with the great ocean (mahasagara), the supreme source (parabrahman), and the supreme self (paramatman).  The infinite point of origin (ananta muladesha).  Of the four causes (karana chatushtaya), this is the purpose (karyakarana).  The absolute unity (kaivalya) which is indistinguishable, unthinkable, and indescribable (alakshana, achintya, and avyapadeshya).  See Brahman.
Nirodha:
Cessation, annihilation, destruction.
Nirodhamarga:
The path of cessation.  See Sadhanamarga.
Niruddha:
Ceased, annihilated, destroyed.
Nirvana:
1) Without sound (nis + vana).
2) Cessation, as opposed to transmigration (samsara).  See Triguna Brahman.
Nirvikalpa:
Undifferentiated, as opposed to differentiated (savikalpa).
Nis:
Without.
Nishkarana:
Unnecessary, without purpose.
Nishkriya:
Inactive, as opposed to active (sakriya).
Nivesha:
Settling in a place, encamping, halting.
Nivritti:
Spinning within, as opposed to spinning without (pravritti).  Turning away from worldliness.  See Vrittivada.
Niyama:
The practice of observances, which includes purification (shaucha), contentment (samtosha), self-discipline (tapas), self-study (svadhyaya), and surrender to the oversoul (ishvarapranidhana).  The second of the eight limbs (ashtanga).  See Ashtanga.
Nontheism:
See Theism.

O

Om:
The sacred syllable discussed in the Mandukya Upanishad and the Yoga Sutras.  The first instruction (adishasana).  See Shabda-Srota.
One-Dimensional Space:
See Triguna Brahman.
Ontology:
The study of the nature of existence or being.  See Darshana.
Ouroboros:
The mythical snake that swallows its tail.  See Kalachakra.

P

Pada:
See Chakshus/Pada.
Panchakosha:
The five classical sheaths.  See Kosha.
Panchama:
1) Fifth.
2) The fifth, or divine, state (daiva avastha), corresponding to bliss (ananda).  See Avastha.
Panchataya:
Fivefold.
Pandava:
Relating to or belonging to the Pandus.
Panentheism:
See Theism.
Pani:
See Tvach/Pani.
Pantheism:
See Theism.
Papa:
Inauspicious, as opposed to auspicious (punya).  See Klishta Vritti.
Parabrahman:
Supreme source.  See Nirguna Brahman.
Parama:
Supreme, highest.
Paramarthatas:
In reality, in truth.
Paramarthika Satya:
The absolute reality, which is nonexistence (asat).  See Satya.
Paramatman:
Supreme self.  See Atman.
Parampara:
Successive, one after the other.
Paridrishta:
Directed, overseen.
Parinama:
Actual change, as opposed to apparent change (vivarta).
Parinamavada:
The doctrine of actual change, as opposed to the doctrine of apparent change (vivartavada).  The corollary of the doctrine of preexistence (satkaryavada) in Dvaita Samkhya.  See Satkaryavada.
Parinirvana:
Beyond cessation.  See Kaivalya.
Patha:
1) Path, way.
2) One of four dimensions (chatushpatha).  The unqualified source (nirguna brahman) is nondimensional.  Within it, the threefold source (triguna brahman) is the nonlocal dimension (alaukika patha).  It’s nondirectional.  And within it, the sevenfold source (saptaguna brahman) is the three local dimensions (laukika pathas).  They’re the six directions (dikshatka).  See Gunavada.
Paurusha:
Belonging to spirit (purusha).  Spiritual, as opposed to material (prakrita).  See Purusha.
Paurusha Traya:
The spiritual triad, as opposed to the material triad (prakrita traya).  Symbolized by the upward facing triangle of the six-pointed star (shatkona).  See Gunavada.
Payu:
See Ghrana/Payu.
Pradhana:
First, primary, major, as opposed to minor (apradhana).
Pradhana Traya:
The major triad, as opposed to the minor heptad (apradhana saptaka).  The unified field (samyukta kshetra).  See Triguna Brahman.
Pradhanika:
Primary, as opposed to secondary (apradhanika).
Pradhanika Satya:
The primary reality, which is potential existence (syat).  See Satya.
Pragrahana:
Taking hold of, reining in, restraining.
Prakasha:
Clearness, brightness, light.
Prakrita:
Belonging to nature (prakriti).  Material, as opposed to spiritual (paurusha).  See Prakriti.
Prakrita Traya:
The material triad, as opposed to the spiritual triad (paurusha traya).  Symbolized by the downward facing triangle of the six-pointed star (shatkona).  See Gunavada.
Prakriti:
Nature, as opposed to spirit (purusha).  The abode of ignorance (ashaya of avidya).  Primordial matter.  The material cause (upadanakarana).  The second of the ten strings (dashaguna).  See Guna.
Pralaya:
Reabsorption.  See Dharmasarpini.
Prama:
Basis, measure.
Pramana:
Proof, right perception.  The three kinds (trividha) being direct perception, inference, and testimony (pratyaksha, anumana, and shabda).  Direct perception born of union (yogaja pratyaksha) is primary (pradhanika).  It consists of the knower, the known, and the knowledge (jna, jneya, and jnana).  They’re the agent, the object, and the action of direct perception (triputi of pratyaksha).  Direct perception born of the senses (indriyaja pratyaksha) is secondary (apradhanika).  It’s the apprehension of objects (adhyavasaya of vishayas) by the senses (indriyas).  The three kinds (trividha) of inference are a priori, a posteriori, and generally seen (purvavat, sheshavat, and samanyatodrishta).  A priori inference is drawing conclusions before observation.  A posteriori inference is drawing conclusions after observation.  Generally seen inference is drawing general conclusions from particulars.  In other words, it’s generalization.  Inference is preceded by (purvaka) the middle term and the major term (linga and lingin).  In the following syllogism, fire is the major term and smoke is the middle term.  “Where there’s smoke, there’s fire.  The mountain is smoky.  Therefore, the mountain is on fire.”  Testimony includes revelation, remembrance, and aphorisms (shruti, smriti, and sutras).  In this case, revelation refers to the Upanishads.  Remembrance refers to the Bhagavad Gita.  And aphorisms refer to the Advaita Samkhya Sutras and the Advaita Yoga Sutras.  But they only pertain to this particular tradition.  Part of spiritual maturity is studying other serious traditions and using our own discernment (viveka).
Prameya:
1) Measurable, finite.
2) Verifiable, demonstrable, provable.
Prana:
1) Breath, vitality, energy.
2) See below.
3) Upward breath, or energy, as opposed to downward (apana).
Pranamayakosha:
The vital, or energy, sheath.  The first principle (tattva) of physics (tamas) and the seventh of the seven sheaths (saptakosha).  Part of a triad (traya) that includes the gross body (sthulasharira) and action yoga (karmayoga).  See Kosha.
Pranava:
See Om.
Pranayama:
The practice of breath control, or energy extension.  The fourth of the eight limbs (ashtanga).  The three activities (vritti traya) of energy extension are internal (abhyantara), external (bahya), and pause (stambha).  The fourth (chaturtha) is transcending (akshepin) the previous three (purva traya) by offering (juhvana) the downward breath (apana) to the upward breath (prana) and the upward breath to the downward breath.  See Ashtanga.
Prarabdha:
Commenced, undertaken, begun, as opposed to accumulated (samchita).  Synonymous with active (udarana).  See Vrittivada.
Prasupta:
Dormant, as opposed to active (udarana).  Synonymous with accumulated (samchita).  See Vrittivada.
Prashvasa:
Exhalation, as opposed to inhalation (shvasa).  See Bahya.
Prathama:
1) First.
2) The first, or non-dual state (advaita avastha), corresponding to spirit (purusha).  See Avastha.
Pratirupakarana:
Of the four causes (karana chatushtaya), this is the formal cause or pattern.  For example, the formal cause of a clay pot is its design.  The original formal cause being spirit (purusha).  See Karana.
Pratisamchara:
Involution, as opposed to evolution (samchara).  See Utsarpini.
Pratitya:
Dependent.
Pratityasamutpada:
The Buddhist theory of dependent origination.
Pratiyogi:
Dependent.
Pratyahara:
The practice of withdrawal.  The dissociation of the senses (indriyas) from their objects.  The fifth of the eight limbs (ashtanga).  See Ashtanga.
Pratyakchetana:
Inner consciousness.
Pratyaksha:
Direct perception.  See Pramana.
Pratyavartana:
Recursion.  See Gunavada.
Pravritti:
Spinning without, as opposed to spinning within (nivritti).  Turning toward worldliness.  See Vrittivada.
Prayatna:
Effort, exertion, activity.
Prithvi:
Earth.  The tenth principle (tattva) of physics (tamas) and the seventh gross element (mahabhuta).  Resonates with the sense (indriya) of smelling/eliminating (ghrana/payu) and the subtle element (tanmatra) of odor (gandha).  See Mahabhuta.
Punaravartin:
Recurring, recursive.  See Pratyavartana.
Punya:
Auspicious, as opposed to inauspicious (papa).  See Aklishta Vritti.
Purna:
1) Completed, fulfilled, accomplished.
2) Full, as opposed to empty (shunya).
Purnata:
Fullness, as opposed to emptiness (shunyata).
Purusha:
Spirit, as opposed to nature (prakriti).  The formal cause (pratirupakarana).  The first of the ten strings (dashaguna).  See Guna.
Purusha-vishesha:
Individualized spirit.  See Ishvara.
Purva:
Previous, preceding, first, as opposed to subsequent (uttara).
Purva Patha:
First dimension, as opposed to subsequent dimension (uttara patha).  See Triguna Brahman.
Purvaka:
Preceded by.
Purvavat:
A priori, as opposed to a posteriori (sheshavat).  See Pramana.

R

Raga:
Attachment, as opposed to aversion (dvesha).  See Ragadvesha.
Ragadvesha:
Attachment and aversion, as opposed to non-attachment (vairagya).  See Klesha.
Raja:
1) Royal.
2) See Rajayoga.
Raja Yoga:
The book on royal yoga by Swami Vivekananda.
Rajas:
Passion, emotion, as opposed to bliss (ananda).  The abode (ashaya) of attachment and aversion (ragadvesha).  Part of the material triad (prakrita traya).  The ninth of the ten strings (dashaguna).  See Guna.
Rajasika:
Passionate, emotional.  See above.
Rajayoga:
Royal yoga.  The third principle (tattva) of the soul (jiva) and the fourth of the seven yogas (yoga saptaka).  Part of a triad (traya) that includes the intellectual sheath (vijnanamayakosha) and the ego body (ahamsharira).  See Yoga.
Rakshana:
Preservation, protecting, guarding.
Rasa:
Flavor.  The ninth principle (tattva) of emotion (rajas) and the sixth subtle element (tanmatra).  Resonates with the sense (indriya) of tasting/reproducing (jihva/upastha) and the gross element (mahabhuta) of water (jala).  See Tanmatra.
Rishi:
Seer, sage, awakened being.
Rita:
The order state, corresponding to existence (sat).  The fourth of the ten states.  See Avastha.
Rupa:
1) Form.
2) Appearance.  The seventh principle (tattva) of emotion (rajas) and the fourth subtle element (tanmatra).  Resonates with the sense (indriya) of seeing/moving (chakshus/pada) and the gross element (mahabhuta) of fire (agni).  See Tanmatra.

S

Sabija:
With seed, as opposed to without seed, seedless (nirbija).  See Bija.
Sachchidananda:
Existence, consciousness, bliss.  See Paurusha Traya.
Sadasat:
Existence and nonexistence.  See Syat.
Sadguru:
True teacher.  See Ishvara.
Sadhaka:
1) Skillful, adept.
2) Practitioner.  Part of a triad (traya) that includes the goal and the practice (sadhya and sadhana).
Sadhakamarga:
The adept path, as opposed to the practical path (sadhanamarga).  One-pointed surrender to the oversoul (ekagra ishvarapranidhana).
Sadhana:
Practice.  Part of a triad (traya) that includes the goal and the practitioner (sadhya and sadhaka).
Sadhanamarga:
The practical path, as opposed to the adept path (sadhakamarga).  The repetition (abhyasa) of threefold wisdom (vidya traya), including discernment, non-attachment, and seeking liberation (viveka, vairagya, and mumukshutva).
Sadhya:
1) Goal.  Part of a triad (traya) that includes the practice and the practitioner (sadhana and sadhaka).
2) To be accomplished, to be fulfilled.
Saguna:
With qualities, or qualified, as opposed to unqualified (nirguna).  See Saguna Brahman.
Saguna Brahman:
The qualified source, as opposed to the unqualified source (nirguna brahman).  Synonymous with the stream (srota).  See Brahman.
Sakriya:
Active, as opposed to inactive (nishkriya).
Sakshi:
The witness state, corresponding to consciousness (chit).  The sixth of the ten states.  See Avastha.
Samadhi:
1) Absorption.  The eighth of the eight limbs (ashtanga).  See Ashtanga.
2) See below.
Samadhiyoga:
Absorption yoga.  Part of inner yoga (antaryoga).  The third principle (tattva) of existence (sat) and the first of the seven yogas (yoga saptaka).  Part of a triad (traya) that includes the existence sheath (sanmayakosha) and the causal body (karanasharira).  See Yoga.
Samadrishti:
Equal vision, as opposed to unequal vision (vishamadrishti).  The right view (samyagdrishti).  See Vidya.
Samamiti:
The symmetry between the strings and the principles (gunas and tattvas) caused by recursion (pratyavartana).  See Gunavada.
Samanyatodrishta:
Generally seen.  See Pramana.
Samaya:
Circumstance, condition.
Samchara:
Evolution, as opposed to involution (pratisamchara).  See Avasarpini.
Samchita:
Collected, stored, accumulated, as opposed to undertaken (prarabdha).  Synonymous with dormant (prasupta).  See Vrittivada.
Samdhi:
Boundary line.  See Kalavada.
Samkalpa:
Intention, aim, will, volition.
Samkhya:
1) Enumeration, numeral, relating to number.
2) The theoretical basis of Yoga.  One of six orthodox philosophies (astika darshanas) in Hinduism.  The Advaita Samkhya Sutras define Non-dual Samkhya (Advaita Samkhya) and the Samkhya Karika defines Dual Samkhya (Dvaita Samkhya).  See Darshana.
Samkhya Karika:
The earliest surviving text of Samkhya.  Attributed to Ishvarakrishna.  See Dvaita Samkhya.
Samsara:
Passage, course, transmigration, as opposed to cessation (nirvana).  The sevenfold source (saptaguna brahman), as opposed to the threefold source (triguna brahman).  See Kalachakra.
Samsarana:
Transmigrating, undergoing transmigration.  See Samsara.
Samskara:
An impression, which may be conscious or subconscious (chetana or jada).
Samtosha:
Contentment, which is unwavering inner peace (avyathya antahshanti).  The second of the five observances (niyamas).  See Niyama.
Samudaya:
Collective arising, co-arising.
Samvedana:
Information exchange enabled by resonance (anunada).  See Anunada.
Samvrita:
Covered, enclosed, surrounded.
Samya:
Equilibrium.  Equality, as opposed to inequality (vaishamya).  See Jiva.
Samyagdrishti:
The right view, as opposed to the wrong view (asamyagdrishti).  See Samadrishti.
Samyanch:
1) Right.
2) Complete.
Samyoga:
Union, combination, connection, as opposed to separation (viyoga).  The original union (samyoga) being the oversoul (ishvara).  See Ishvara.
Samyukta:
United, combined, connected, as opposed to separated (viyukta).
Samyukta Kshetra:
Unified field.  See Pradhana Traya.
san:
The compound form of “sat.”  See Sat.
Sanmayakosha:
The existence sheath.  The first principle (tattva) of existence (sat) and the first of the seven sheaths (saptakosha).  Part of a triad (traya) that includes the causal body (karanasharira) and absorption yoga (samadhiyoga).  See Kosha.
Sanskrit:
The divine language in which most of the ancient Hindu texts are written.
Saptaguna:
1) Sevenfold.
2) Seven qualities, seven strings.  See Guna.
Saptaguna Brahman:
The sevenfold source, as opposed to the threefold source (triguna brahman).  The minor heptad (apradhana saptaka).  The manifest (vyakta) part of the tenfold source (dashaguna brahman).  Synonymous with transmigration (samsara) and the sound-current (shabda-srota).  Related to the Pythagorean heptad.  See Brahman.
Saptaka:
Heptad.  A single unit with seven parts.
Saptakosha:
The seven sheaths.  See Kosha.
Saptama:
1) Seventh.
2) The seventh, or deep sleep, state (sushupti avastha), corresponding to the soul (jiva).  See Avastha.
Saptatattva:
A sevenfold principle, as opposed to a threefold principle (tritattva).  The manifest (vyakta) part of a tenfold principle (dashatattva).  See Tattva.
Saptatitattva:
Seventy principles.  The total number of principles in Advaita Samkhya.  See Tattva.
Sarga:
Creation of the universe.
Sarpini:
One of four overlapping arcs in the wheel of time (kalachakra).  See Kalavada.
Sarupya:
Conformity with, identity of appearance, resemblance.
Sarvabhauma:
All levels, universal.
Sarvajnana:
All knowledge.
Sarvavyapin:
All-pervading, omnipresent.
Sat:
1) Existence, as opposed to nonexistence (asat).
2) Existence.  One of three ontological levels of being.  See As.
3) Existence, as opposed to physics (tamas).  The fourth of the ten strings (dashaguna).  Part of the spiritual triad (paurusha traya).  See Guna.
4) See Sanmayakosha.
Satkara:
Reverence, respect, care.
Satkaryavada:
The doctrine of preexistence.  The corollary of the doctrine of nonexistence (shunyavada) in Advaita Samkhya and the parent theory of string theory (gunavada).  It states that the effect (karya) preexists as seeds (bijas) within the origin (mula).  The origin is seedless nonexistence (nirbija asat); its seeds are undifferentiated, unmanifest potential existence (nirvikalpa, avyakta syat); their effect (karya) is differentiated, manifest existence (savikalpa, vyakta sat).  See Shunyavada.
Sattva:
Mind, as opposed to consciousness (chit).  The abode (ashaya) of egoism (asmita).  Part of the material triad (prakrita traya).  The eighth of the ten strings (dashaguna).  See Guna.
Sattvika:
1) Pure.
2) Mental.  See above.
Satya:
1) Truth, as opposed to falsity (mithya).
2) Non-lying, which is verifiable speech (prameya vach).  The second of the five restraints (yamas).  See Yama.
3) One of the three truths, or realities (satya traya).  They are absolute (paramarthika), primary (pradhanika), and transactional (vyavaharika).  They correspond to nonexistence (asat), potential existence (syat), and existence (sat).  They also correspond to the unqualified source (nirguna brahman), the threefold source (triguna brahman), and the sevenfold source (saptaguna brahman).  See Brahman.
Satya Traya:
Three truths, or realitiesSee above.
Savikalpa:
Differentiated, as opposed to undifferentiated (nirvikalpa).
Sevita:
Followed, pursued.
Sheshavat:
A posteriori, as opposed to a priori (purvavat).  See Pramana.
Shabda:
1) Sound, as opposed to silence (nihshabda).
2) Sound.  The sixth principle (tattva) of emotion (rajas) and the third subtle element (tanmatra).  Resonates with the sense (indriya) of hearing/speaking (shrotra/vach) and the gross element (mahabhuta) of ether (akasha).  See Tanmatra.
3) Testimony.  See Pramana.
Shabda-Srota:
The sound-current, as opposed to the silent current (nihshabda srota).  See Srota.
Shadguna:
1) Sixfold.
2) Six qualities, six strings.
3) The six unequal (vishama) strings of transmigration (samsara).  They are existence (sat), bliss (ananda), consciousness (chit), mind (sattva), emotion (rajas), and physics (tamas).  See Guna.
Shaithilya:
Relaxation, looseness.
Sharira:
1) One of the seven bodies (sharira saptaka).  They are the causal body (karanasharira), the divine body (devasharira), the conscious body (chittasharira), the ego body (ahamsharira), the name body (namasharira), the subtle body (lingasharira), and the gross body (sthulasharira).  They’re material (prakrita), as opposed to the spiritual sheaths (paurusha koshas).  See Tattva.
2) One of the three classical bodies (sharira traya).  They are the causal body (karanasharira), the subtle body (lingasharira), and the gross body (sthulasharira).
Sharira Saptaka:
The seven bodies.  See above.
Sharira Traya:
The three classical bodies.  See Sharira.
Shasana:
Teaching, instruction.
Shashtha:
1) Sixth.
2) The sixth, or witness, state (sakshi avastha), corresponding to consciousness (chit).  See Avastha.
Shashtitantra:
The Science of Sixty Topics.  The compilation of Samkhya by Panchashika which is no longer extant.
Shatka:
Hexad.  A single unit with six parts.
Shatkona:
Six-pointed star.  See Gunavada.
Shaucha:
Purification, which is clearing the elements (bhutashuddhi).  The first of the five observances (niyamas).  See Niyama.
Shrotra:
See below.
Shrotra/Vach:
Hearing/speaking.  The sixth principle (tattva) of mind (sattva) and the third sense (indriya).  Resonates with the subtle element (tanmatra) of sound (shabda) and the gross element (mahabhuta) of ether (akasha).  See Indriya.
Shruti:
Revelation, as opposed to remembrance (smriti).  See Pramana.
Shunya:
1) Zero.
2) Void, empty, as opposed to full (purna).  Nothing, naught.  See Nirguna Brahman.
Shunyata:
1) Emptiness, as opposed to fullness (purnata).
2) The Buddhist doctrine of emptiness.
Shunyatman:
The empty self.  See Paramatman.
Shunyavada:
1) The doctrine of nonexistence.  The parent doctrine of the doctrine of preexistence (satkaryavada) in Advaita Samkhya.  It states that the unqualified source (nirguna brahman) is the infinite point of origin (ananta muladesha) and final cause (karyakarana).  See Nirguna Brahman.
2) See Shunyata.
Shvasa:
Inhalation, as opposed to exhalation (prashvasa).  See Abhyantara.
Siddhi:
1) Accomplishment, attainment.
2) Supernatural power.
Skandha:
Aggregate.  See Vritti.
Smriti:
Remembrance, as opposed to revelation (shruti).  See Pramana.
Space-Time:
See Saptaguna Brahman.
Spanda:
Vibration.  The inherent motion of the strings (gunas).  See Gunavada.
Sparsha:
Feel.  The eighth principle (tattva) of emotion (rajas) and the fifth subtle element (tanmatra).  Resonates with the sense (indriya) of feeling/grasping (tvach/pani) and the gross element (mahabhuta) of air (vayu).  See Tanmatra.
Spashta:
The lucid state, corresponding to mind (sattva).  The eighth of the ten states.  See Avastha.
Srota:
1) The stream, as opposed to the great ocean (mahasagara).  The “razor’s edge” (kshurasya dhara).  Refers to the ten strings (dashaguna) as a continuum of states (avasthas).  See Saguna Brahman.
2) A current of the stream.  The major triad (pradhana traya) is the silent current (nihshabda srota); the minor heptad (apradhana saptaka) is the sound-current (shabda-srota).  See Triguna Brahman and Saptaguna Brahman.
Srotapanna:
Stream-entrant, one who has entered the stream.  See Srota.
Stambha:
Pause, temporary stoppage.  See Pranayama.
Sthana:
Position, posture, pose, seat.
Sthira:
Still, fixed, steady, immovable, motionless.
Sthita:
Steady, firm, constant.
Sthula:
1) Gross.
2) See below.
Sthulasharira:
The gross body.  The physical body.  Synonymous with the food sheath (annamayakosha).  The second principle (tattva) of physics (tamas) and the seventh of the seven bodies (sharira saptaka).  Part of a triad (traya) that includes the energy sheath (pranamayakosha) and action yoga (karmayoga).  See Sharira.
Sthulata:
The gross nature.  See above.
String Theory:
1) A modern “theory of everything” that introduces the possibility of ten dimensions instead of four (length, width, height, and space-time).  The six extra dimensions close up on themselves into circles called Calabi-Yau manifolds.
2) See Gunavada.
Su:
To bring forth, deliver, produce, or beget.
Sukha:
1) Happiness, as opposed to suffering (duhkha).
2) Comfortable, as opposed to uncomfortable (duhkha).
Sukhasana:
Comfortable position.
Sukshmam:
Subtly.
Sushupta:
Deep sleep, sleeping.  See below.
Sushupti:
The deep sleep state, corresponding to the soul (jiva).  The seventh of the ten states.  See Avastha.
Sutra:
1) Thread, string, line.
2) Aphorism, terse philosophical statement.  See Pramana.
Sutratman:
Thread-self.  The soul which passes like a thread through the universe.  See Atman.
Svabhava:
Our nature, as opposed to our duty (svadharma).  See Bhavasarpini.
Svadharma:
Our duty, as opposed to our nature (svabhava).  See Dharmasarpini.
Svadhyaya:
Self-study, which is self-inquiry (atmavichara).  The fourth of the five observances (niyamas).  See Niyama.
Svairakam:
Freely, unreservedly.
Svapna:
The dream state, corresponding to emotion (rajas).  The ninth of the ten states.  See Avastha.
Svarupa:
One’s true nature, as opposed to one’s false nature (asvarupa).
Syat:
Potential existence.  One of three ontological levels of being.  See As.

T

Tamas:
1) Darkness.
2) Physics, as opposed to existence (sat).  The abode (ashaya) of inertia (abhinivesha).  Part of the material triad (prakrita traya).  The tenth of the ten strings (dashaguna).  See Guna.
Tamasika:
1) Dark. 
2) Physical.  See above.
Tanmatra:
Subtle element.  There are seven subtle elements, but only five are named.  They are sound (shabda), appearance (rupa), feel (sparsha), flavor (rasa), and odor (gandha).  They’re the subtle objects (vishayas) of the senses (indriyas), as opposed to the gross objects, or mahabhutasSee Tattva.
Tap:
To give out heat, be hot, shine (as the sun).  See Tapas.
Tapas:
Self-discipline, which is reining in the senses (pragrahana the indriyas).  The third of the five observances (niyamas).  See Niyama.
Taramga:
Wave.  See Vrittivada.
“Tat tvam asi”:
“Thou art that.”  See Mahavakya.
Tattva:
1) One of the seventy principles (saptatitattva) of Advaita Samkhya.  See Gunavada.
2) One of the twenty-five classical principles.  They are spirit (purusha), nature (prakriti), intellect (buddhi), ego (ahamkara), mind (manas), the ten senses (indriyas), the five subtle elements (tanmatras), and the five gross elements (mahabhutas).
Tetractys:
The ancient triangular symbol of Pythagoras.  It contains ten dots distributed among four rows.  The first row has one dot, the second has two, the third has three, and the fourth has four.  These dots symbolize the ten strings (dashaguna) of string theory (gunavada).  See Gunavada.
Theism:
The belief in a deity or deities.  Atheism is the denial of deity.  Monotheism is the belief in a singular transcendent deity.  Nontheism is the lack of belief in deity.  Panentheism is the belief in a singular transcendent deity immanent throughout the universe.  Pantheism is the belief in an immanent pantheon of deities.
Traya:
Triad.  A single unit with three parts.
Triguna:
1) Threefold.
2) Three qualities, three strings.  See Guna.
Triguna Brahman:
The threefold source, as opposed to the sevenfold source (saptaguna brahman).  The major triad (pradhana traya).  The unmanifest (avyakta) part of the tenfold source (dashaguna brahman).  Synonymous with cessation (nirvana) and the silent current (nihshabda srota).  Related to the Pythagorean triad.  See Brahman.
Triputi:
The agent, the object, and the action of direct perception (pratyaksha).  See Pratyaksha.
Trishna:
Thirst.  The cause of suffering (duhkha) in the Four Noble TruthsSee Ragadvesha.
Tritattva:
A threefold principle, as opposed to a sevenfold principle (saptatattva).  The unmanifest (avyakta) part of a tenfold principle (dashatattva).  See Tattva.
Tritiya:
1) Third.
2) The third, or union state (yoga avastha), corresponding to the oversoul (ishvara).  See Avastha.
Trividha:
Of three kinds, threefold.
Turiya:
The fourth state.  See Chaturtha.
Turiyatita:
Beyond the fourth state.  Refers to the union (yoga), dual (dvaita), and non-dual states (advaita avasthas).  See Avastha.
Tva:
Suffix meaning “the state of.”
Tvach:
See below.
Tvach/Pani:
Feeling/grasping.  The eighth principle (tattva) of mind (sattva) and the fifth sense (indriya).  Resonates with the subtle element (tanmatra) of feel (sparsha) and the gross element (mahabhuta) of air (vayu).  See Indriya.
Tyaga:
Giving up, renouncing, renunciation.

U

Udarana:
Active, as opposed to dormant (prasupta).  Synonymous with undertaken (prarabdha).  See Vrittivada.
Udaya:
1) Arising.
2) Ascent.
Upadanakarana:
Of the four causes (karana chatushtaya), this is the material cause.  For example, the material cause of a clay pot is clay.  The original material cause being nature (prakriti).  See Karana.
Upadhi:
Appearance.  Refers to nature (prakriti) in relation to spirit (purusha).  See Prakriti.
Upanishad:
Secret doctrine, which reveals the hidden meaning of the Vedas.
Upastha:
See Jihva/Upastha.
Ut:
Ascending.  See below.
Utsarpini:
The ascending arc, as opposed to the descending arc (avasarpini).  See Kalavada.
Uttara:
Subsequent, following, later, as opposed to previous (purva).
Uttara Patha:
Subsequent dimension, as opposed to first dimension (purva patha).  See Saptaguna Brahman.

V

Vach:
1) See Shrotra/Vach.
2) Speech.
Vachaka:
Speaker, reciter.
Vairagya:
Non-attachment, as opposed to attachment and aversion (ragadvesha).  See Bheshaja.
Vaishamya:
Inequality, as opposed to equality (samya).  See Shadguna.
Vaitrishnya:
See Vitrishna.
Vana:
Sound.
Varna:
Social class, caste.
Vashyata:
Control.
Vayu:
Air.  The eighth principle (tattva) of physics (tamas) and the fifth gross element (mahabhuta).  Resonates with the sense (indriya) of feeling/grasping (tvach/pani) and subtle element (tanmatra) of feel (sparsha).  See Mahabhuta.
Vedaniya:
To be known, to be experienced.
Vedanta:
One of six orthodox philosophies (astika darshanas) in Hinduism.  See Darshana.
Via Negativa:
See Neti Neti.
Via Positiva:
See Iti Iti.
Vichcheda:
Interruption, discontinuance, cessation.
Vichchedana:
Distinguishing, separating, dividing.
Vidya:
Wisdom, as opposed to ignorance (avidya).  See Bheshaja.
Vidyamaya:
Wise measuring, as opposed to unwise measuring (avidyamaya).  See Maya.
Vijnana:
1) Intellect.  Synonymous with “buddhi” and “mahat.”
2) See below.
Vijnanamayakosha:
The intellectual sheath.  The first principle (tattva) of the soul (jiva) and the fourth of the seven sheaths (saptakosha).  Part of a triad (traya) that includes the ego body (ahamsharira) and royal yoga (rajayoga).  See Kosha.
Vikalpa:
Fantasy, imagination.
Vinivritti:
Cessation, inactivity.
Viniyukta:
Applied to.
Viparyaya:
Misapprehension, error, mistake.
Virodha:
Resistance, opposition, contradiction.
Virya:
Concentrated energy.  See Brahmacharya.
Vishamadrishti:
Unequal vision, as opposed to equal vision (samadrishti).  The wrong view (asamyagdrishti).  See Avidya.
Vishaya:
Object of a sense (indriya).  See Tanmatra and Mahabhuta.
Vishesha:
Distinct, particular, individual.
Vitrishna:
Freedom from desire, indifference to.
Vivarta:
Apparent change, or transformation, as opposed to actual change (parinama).  See below.
Vivartavada:
The doctrine of apparent change, as opposed to the doctrine of actual change (parinamavada).  The corollary of the doctrine of preexistence (satkaryavada) in Advaita Vedanta.  See Satkaryavada.
Vivartita:
Apparently changed, transformed.  See above.
Viveka:
Discernment, as opposed to egoism (asmita).  See Bheshaja.
Vivekin:
A discerning or wise person, as opposed to an undiscerning person (avivekin).
Viyoga:
Separation, as opposed to union (samyoga).
Viyukta:
Separated, divided, as opposed to united (samyukta).
Vrit:
To turn, turn round, revolve, or roll.  See below.
Vritti:
1) Revolving, turning round.
2) Aggregate, modification, thought.  See below.
3) Operation, procedure, activity.  See Pranayama.
Vrittivada:
The doctrine of modification.  The corollary of the doctrine of time (kalavada).  It states that modifications (vrittis) are transmigrating aggregates of seeds (samsarana skandhas of bijas) in the wheel of time (kalachakra).  Modifications in the arc of law (dharmasarpini) are spiritual laws (paurusha dharmas); modifications in the arc of rebirth (bhavasarpini) are material things (prakrita bhavas).  Modifications in the descending arc (avasarpini) are spinning without (pravritti); modifications in the ascending arc (utsarpini) are spinning within (nivritti).  Like waves (taramgas), modifications are mutually interactive, suppressive, supportive, and generative (anyonyam mithuna, abhibhava, ashraya, and janana).  Modifications are twelvefold (dvadashataya) and either afflicted or unafflicted (klishta or aklishta).  The co-arising of suffering (samudaya of duhkha) is afflicted modifications; the co-arising of happiness (samudaya of sukha) is unafflicted modifications.  Without restraint and without observance (ayama and aniyama), modifications become afflicted during rebirth (bhava).  Afflicted modifications are unlawful and inauspicious (adharma and papa).  After rebirth, they remain dormant (prasupta) in their abodes (ashayas), which are mind, emotion, and physics (sattva, rajas, and tamas).  They become active (udarana) again during future births (adrishta janmas).  On the other hand, unafflicted modifications are lawful and auspicious (dharma and punya).  They attain reabsorption (pralaya) after rebirth and become a permanent part of our nature.  See Kalavada.
Vyakta:
Manifest, as opposed to unmanifest (avyakta).
Vyavaharika Satya:
The transactional reality, which is existence (sat).  See Satya.

Y

Yama:
The practice of restraints, which includes non-harming (ahimsa), non-lying (satya), non-stealing (asteya), non-wasting (brahmacharya), and non-possessiveness (aparigraha).  The first of the eight limbs (ashtanga).  See Ashtanga.
Yatna:
Effort, exertion.
Yoga:
1) Union, as opposed to separation (viyoga).
2) One of six orthodox philosophies (astika darshanas) in Hinduism.  The practical portion of Samkhya.  See Darshana.
3) The union (samyoga) of spirit and nature (purusha and prakriti).  See Ishvara.
4) The union state, corresponding to the oversoul (ishvara).  The third of the ten states.  See Avastha.
5) One of the seven yogas (yoga saptaka).  They are action yoga (karmayoga), devotion yoga (bhaktiyoga), knowledge yoga (jnanayoga), royal yoga (rajayoga), concentration yoga (dharanayoga), meditation yoga (dhyanayoga), and absorption yoga (samadhiyoga).  Each being the union (samyoga) of a spiritual sheath (paurusha kosha) with its corresponding material body (prakrita sharira).  They are principles (tattvas) to be fulfilled through practice (sadhya through sadhana).  Outer yoga (bahiryoga) is action yoga, devotion yoga, and knowledge yoga together (ekatra); inner yoga (antaryoga) is concentration yoga, meditation yoga, and absorption yoga together; royal yoga is inner yoga and outer yoga together.  See Tattva.
6) One of the three classical yogas (yoga traya).  They are knowledge yoga, devotion yoga, and action yoga (jnanayoga, bhaktiyoga, and karmayoga).
Yoga Saptaka:
The seven yogas.  See above.
Yoga Sutras:
A collection of one hundred ninety-five aphorisms (sutras) on Yoga.  Attributed to Patanjali.
Yoga Traya:
The three classical yogas.  See Yoga.
Yoga Upanishad:
One of twenty Upanishads that discuss the Yoga philosophy (darshana).  See Upanishad.
Yogaja:
“Born of union,” as opposed to “born of the senses” (indriyaja).  See Pratyaksha.
Yogyata:
Fitness, suitability.

Z

Zero-Dimensional Space:
See Nirguna Brahman.
Zero-Point:
See Nirguna Brahman.
Zero-Point Field:
See Triguna Brahman.