Sutra Literature

Advaita Samkhya Sutras (72)

Chapter 1: Duhkha

Sutra 1.1

Duhkha is the viyoga of the jna and the jneya.


“Suffering is the separation of the knower and the known.”

Sutra 1.2

The udaya of duhkha is asmita, ragadvesha, and abhinivesha.


“The arising of suffering is egoism, attachment and aversion, and inertia.”

Sutra 1.3

The nirodha of duhkha is the ashesha nirodha of this avidya traya.


“The cessation of suffering is the complete cessation of this triple ignorance.”

Sutra 1.4

The nirodhamarga is the abhyasa of viveka, vairagya, and mumukshutva.


“The path of cessation is the repetition of discernment, non-attachment, and seeking liberation.”

Chapter 2: Pramana

Sutra 2.1

The trividha of pramana are pratyaksha, anumana, and shabda.


“The three kinds of proof are direct perception, inference, and testimony.”

Sutra 2.2

Yogaja pratyaksha is pradhanika; indriyaja pratyaksha is apradhanika.


“Direct perception born of union is primary; direct perception born of the senses is secondary.”

Sutra 2.3

Anumana is trividha and purvaka by the linga and the lingin.


“Inference is of three kinds and preceded by the middle term and the major term.”

Sutra 2.4

The trividha of shabda are shruti, smriti, and sutras.


“The three kinds of testimony are revelation, remembrance, and aphorisms.”

Chapter 3: Shunyavada and Satkaryavada

Sutra 3.1

Shunyavada states that nirguna brahman is the ananta muladesha.


“The doctrine of nonexistence states that the unqualified source is the infinite point of origin.”

Sutra 3.2

Of the karana chatushtaya, the mula is the karyakarana.


“Of the four causes, the origin is the final cause.”

Sutra 3.3

Satkaryavada states that the karya preexists as bijas within the mula.


“The doctrine of preexistence states that the effect preexists as seeds within the origin.”

Sutra 3.4

The mula is nirbija asat; its bijas are nirvikalpa, avyakta syat; their karya is savikalpa, vyakta sat.


“The origin is seedless nonexistence; its seeds are undifferentiated, unmanifest potential existence; their effect is differentiated, manifest existence.”

Sutra 3.5

The mula is the paramarthika satya; its bijas are the pradhanika satya; their karya is the vyavaharika satya.


“The origin is the absolute reality; its seeds are the primary reality; their effect is the transactional reality.”

Sutra 3.6

The mula is the paramatman; its bijas are the sutratman; their karya is the jivatman.


“The origin is the supreme self; its seeds are the thread-self; their effect is the living self.”

Chapter 4: Gunavada

Sutra 4.1

Gunavada states that nirguna brahman is vivartita through dashaguna spanda.


“String theory states that the unqualified source is apparently changed through tenfold vibration.”

Sutra 4.2

The chatushpatha are prameya dvamdvas.


“The four dimensions are measurable pairs of opposites.”

Sutra 4.3

Of the karana chatushtaya, purusha is the pratirupakarana.


“Of the four causes, spirit is the formal cause.”

Sutra 4.4

Of the karana chatushtaya, prakriti is the upadanakarana.


“Of the four causes, nature is the material cause.”

Sutra 4.5

Purusha is the ashaya of vidya; prakriti is the ashaya of avidya.


“Spirit is the abode of wisdom; nature is the abode of ignorance.”

Sutra 4.6

Purusha and prakriti are the alaukika dvamdva.


“Spirit and nature are the nonlocal pair of opposites.”

Sutra 4.7

Ishvara is the samyoga of this dvamdva.


“The oversoul is the union of this pair of opposites.”

Sutra 4.8

Of the karana chatushtaya, ishvara is the nimittakarana.


“Of the four causes, the oversoul is the efficient cause.”

Sutra 4.9

Purusha, prakriti, and ishvara are the jna, the jneya, and the jnana.


“Spirit, nature, and the oversoul are the knower, the known, and the knowledge.”

Sutra 4.10

Purusha, prakriti, and ishvara are triguna brahman:

1) purusha
2) prakriti
3) ishvara


“Spirit, nature, and the oversoul are the threefold source:

1) spirit
2) nature
3) oversoul”

Sutra 4.11

This traya is pradhana.


“This triad is major.”

Sutra 4.12

The samyukta samya of its shadguna vaishamya is saptaguna brahman:

4) sat
5) ananda
6) chit
7) jiva
8) sattva
9) rajas
10) tamas


“The combined equality of its sixfold inequality is the sevenfold source:

4) existence
5) bliss
6) consciousness
7) soul
8) mind
9) emotion
10) physics”

Sutra 4.13

This saptaka is apradhana.


“This heptad is minor.”

Sutra 4.14

Sat, ananda, and chit are the paurusha traya; sattva, rajas, and tamas are the prakrita traya.


“Existence, bliss, and consciousness are the spiritual triad; mind, emotion, and physics are the material triad.”

Sutra 4.15

Sat and tamas, ananda and rajas, and chit and sattva are the laukika dvamdvas.


“Existence and physics, bliss and emotion, and consciousness and mind are the local pairs of opposites.”

Sutra 4.16

Jiva is the samyoga of these trayas and the samyoga of these dvamdvas.


“The soul is the union of these triads and the union of these pairs of opposites.”

Sutra 4.17

Jiva is an amsha of ishvara.


“The soul is a part of the oversoul.”

Sutra 4.18

Sat, ananda, and chit are the ashayas of mumukshutva, vairagya, and viveka; sattva, rajas, and tamas are the ashayas of asmita, ragadvesha, and abhinivesha.


“Existence, bliss, and consciousness are the abodes of seeking liberation, non-attachment, and discernment; mind, emotion, and physics are the abodes of egoism, attachment and aversion, and inertia.”

Sutra 4.19

Nirguna brahman is the paramarthika satya; triguna brahman is the pradhanika satya; saptaguna brahman is the vyavaharika satya.


“The unqualified source is the absolute reality; the threefold source is the primary reality; the sevenfold source is the transactional reality.”

Sutra 4.20

Triguna brahman plus saptaguna brahman is the purna dashaguna brahman.


“The threefold source plus the sevenfold source is the complete tenfold source.”

Chapter 5: Tattvas of Gunavada

Sutra 5.1

Each of the saptaguna is the punaravartin mula of a dashatattva.


“Each of the seven strings is the recursive origin of a tenfold principle.”

Sutra 5.2

Each dashatattva consists of a tritattva and a saptatattva.


“Each tenfold principle consists of a threefold principle and a sevenfold principle.”

Sutra 5.3

Each tritattva consists of a paurusha kosha plus a prakrita sharira samyukta by an aishvara yoga.


“Each threefold principle consists of a spiritual sheath plus a material body united by an oversoul union.”

Sutra 5.4

The tritattva of sat consists of:

1) sanmayakosha
2) karanasharira
3) samadhiyoga


“The threefold principle of existence consists of:

1) the existence sheath
2) the causal body
3) absorption yoga”

Sutra 5.5

The tritattva of ananda consists of:

1) anandamayakosha
2) devasharira
3) dhyanayoga


“The threefold principle of bliss consists of:

1) the bliss sheath
2) the divine body
3) meditation yoga”

Sutra 5.6

The tritattva of chit consists of:

1) chinmayakosha
2) chittasharira
3) dharanayoga


“The threefold principle of consciousness consists of:

1) the consciousness sheath
2) the conscious body
3) concentration yoga”

Sutra 5.7

The tritattva of jiva consists of:

1) vijnanamayakosha
2) ahamsharira
3) rajayoga


“The threefold principle of the soul consists of:

1) the intellectual sheath
2) the ego body
3) royal yoga”

Sutra 5.8

The tritattva of sattva consists of:

1) manomayakosha
2) namasharira
3) jnanayoga


“The threefold principle of mind consists of:

1) the mental sheath
2) the name body
3) knowledge yoga”

Sutra 5.9

The tritattva of rajas consists of:

1) kamamayakosha
2) lingasharira
3) bhaktiyoga


“The threefold principle of emotion consists of:

1) the love sheath
2) the subtle body
3) devotion yoga”

Sutra 5.10

The tritattva of tamas consists of:

1) pranamayakosha
2) sthulasharira
3) karmayoga


“The threefold principle of physics consists of:

1) the energy sheath
2) the gross body
3) action yoga”

Sutra 5.11

The yoga saptaka are tattvas sadhya through sadhana.


“The seven yogas are principles to be fulfilled through practice.”

Sutra 5.12

The saptatattva of sattva consists of the indriyas:

4) -
5) -
6) shrotra/vach
7) chakshus/pada
8) tvach/pani
9) jihva/upastha
10) ghrana/payu


“The sevenfold principle of mind consists of the senses:

4) -
5) -
6) hearing/speaking
7) seeing/moving
8) feeling/grasping
9) tasting/reproducing
10) smelling/eliminating”

Sutra 5.13

The saptatattva of rajas consists of the tanmatras:

4) -
5) -
6) shabda
7) rupa
8) sparsha
9) rasa
10) gandha


“The sevenfold principle of emotion consists of the subtle elements:

4) -
5) -
6) sound
7) appearance
8) texture
9) flavor
10) odor”

Sutra 5.14

The saptatattva of tamas consists of the mahabhutas:

4) -
5) -
6) akasha
7) agni
8) vayu
9) jala
10) prithvi


“The sevenfold principle of physics consists of the gross elements:

4) -
5) -
6) ether
7) fire
8) air
9) water
10) earth”

Sutra 5.15

The prama of samamiti is samkhya avritti of spanda.


“The basis of symmetry is numerical frequency of vibration.”

Sutra 5.16

Samamiti produces anunada, which allows samvedana.


“Symmetry produces resonance, which allows information exchange.”

Chapter 6: Kalavada and Vrittivada

Sutra 6.1

Kalavada states that kala is the chakra samsara toward samya.


“The doctrine of time states that time is the cyclical passage toward equality.”

Sutra 6.2

The saptaguna are samvrita by the dvadashara of the kalachakra:

12) sat
11 & 1) ananda
10 & 2) chit
9 & 3) jiva
8 & 4) sattva
7 & 5) rajas
6) tamas


“The seven strings are enclosed by the twelve spokes of the wheel of time:

12) existence
11 & 1) bliss
10 & 2) consciousness
9 & 3) soul
8 & 4) mind
7 & 5) emotion
6) physics”

Sutra 6.3

The dvadashara are parampara, anitya, and pratitya.


“The twelve spokes are successive, impermanent, and dependent.”

Sutra 6.4

The dharmasarpini from the navama ara to the tritiya is sukha; the bhavasarpini from the tritiya ara to the navama is duhkha; the navama and tritiya aras are the samdhi.


“The arc of law from the ninth spoke to the third is happiness; the arc of rebirth from the third spoke to the ninth is suffering; the ninth and third spokes are the boundary line.”

Sutra 6.5

The avasarpini from the dvadashama ara to the shashtha is samchara; the utsarpini from the shashtha ara to the dvadashama is pratisamchara; the dvadashama and shashtha aras are the samdhi.


“The descending arc from the twelfth spoke to the sixth is evolution; the ascending arc from the sixth spoke to the twelfth is involution; the twelfth and sixth spokes are the boundary line.”

Sutra 6.6

The kalachakra consists of chakras antar chakras.


“The wheel of time consists of wheels within wheels.”

Sutra 6.7

Vrittivada states that vrittis are samsarana skandhas of bijas in the kalachakra.


“The doctrine of modification states that modifications are transmigrating aggregates of seeds in the wheel of time.”

Sutra 6.8

Vrittis in the dharmasarpini are paurusha dharmas; vrittis in the bhavasarpini are prakrita bhavas.


“Modifications in the arc of law are spiritual laws; modifications in the arc of rebirth are material things.”

Sutra 6.9

Vrittis in the avasarpini are pravritti; vrittis in the utsarpini are nivritti.


“Modifications in the descending arc are spinning without; modifications in the ascending arc are spinning within.”

Sutra 6.10

Like taramgas, vrittis are anyonyam mithuna, abhibhava, ashraya, and janana.


“Like waves, modifications are mutually interactive, suppressive, supportive, and generative.”

Chapter 7: The Srota

Sutra 7.1

Paramarthatas, the jagat is eva the spanda of nirguna brahman.


“In truth, the universe is merely the vibration of the unqualified source.”

Sutra 7.2

Nirguna brahman is the mahasagara, and the dashaguna are an abhinna srota of avasthas.


“The unqualified source is the great ocean, and the ten strings are an unbroken stream of states.”

Sutra 7.3

The srota is the ksurasya dhara.


“The stream is the razor’s edge.”

Sutra 7.4

The udaya through the srota is the anubhava of neti neti.


“The ascent through the stream is the experience of ‘not this, not that’.”

Sutra 7.5

The prakrita traya of tamas, rajas, and sattva are the jagrat, svapna, and spashta avasthas.


“The material triad of physics, emotion, and mind are the waking, dream, and lucid states.”

Sutra 7.6

Jiva is the sushupti avastha, which is budhya.


“The soul is the deep sleep state, which is to be awakened.”

Sutra 7.7

The paurusha traya of chit, ananda, and sat are the sakshi, daiva, and rita avasthas.


“The spiritual triad of consciousness, bliss, and existence are the witness, divine, and order states.”

Sutra 7.8

This apradhana saptaka is the shabda-srota of samsara.


“This minor heptad is the sound-current of transmigration.”

Sutra 7.9

Turiyatita, ishvara, prakriti, and purusha are the yoga, dvaita, and advaita avasthas.


“Beyond the fourth state, the oversoul, nature, and spirit are the union, dual, and non-dual states.”

Sutra 7.10

This pradhana traya is the nihshabda srota of nirvana.


“This major triad is the silent current of cessation.”

Sutra 7.11

Parinirvana, the mula avastha is alakshana, achintya, and avyapadeshya kaivalya.


“Beyond cessation, the ground state is indistinguishable, unthinkable, and indescribable isolation.”

Sutra 7.12

Tat tvam asi.


“Thou art that.”

Advaita Yoga Sutras (72)

Chapter 1: Sadhya

Sutra 1.1

Now, after Samkhya, comes the shasana of Yoga.


“Now, after Samkhya, comes the instruction of Yoga.”

Sutra 1.2

Yoga is klishta vritti nirodha.


“Yoga is cessation of afflicted modifications.”

Sutra 1.3

Then, the drishya is avasthana in its svarupa.


“Then, the seen is abiding in its true nature.”

Sutra 1.4

Otherwise, there is sarupya with the kleshas.


“Otherwise, there is conformity with the afflictions.”

Sutra 1.5

Avidya is vishamadrishti of the drashta and the drishya.


“Ignorance is unequal vision of the seer and the seen.”

Sutra 1.6

Avidya is the kshetra of the uttara kleshas.


“Ignorance is the field of the subsequent afflictions.”

Sutra 1.7

Asmita is the asvarupa of the drishya.


“Egoism is the false nature of the seen.”

Sutra 1.8

Ragadvesha is the mada of the drishya.


“Attachment and aversion are the thrill of the seen.”

Sutra 1.9

Abhinivesha is the bandha of the drishya.


“Inertia is the binding of the seen.”

Sutra 1.10

Vrittis are dvadashataya and either klishta or aklishta.


“Modifications are twelvefold and either afflicted or unafflicted.”

Sutra 1.11

Klishta vrittis are adharma and papa; aklishta vrittis are dharma and punya.


“Afflicted modifications are unlawful and inauspicious; unafflicted modifications are lawful and auspicious.”

Sutra 1.12

The samudaya of duhkha is klishta vrittis; the samudaya of sukha is aklishta vrittis.


“The co-arising of suffering is afflicted modifications; the co-arising of happiness is unafflicted modifications.”

Sutra 1.13

Ayama and aniyama, vrittis become klishta during bhava.


“Without restraint and without observance, modifications become afflicted during rebirth.”

Sutra 1.14

Aklishta vrittis attain pralaya after bhava, while klishta vrittis remain prasupta in their ashayas.


“Unafflicted modifications attain reabsorption after rebirth, while afflicted modifications remain dormant in their abodes.”

Sutra 1.15

Prasupta vrittis become udarana during adrishta janmas.


“Dormant modifications become active during future births.”

Sutra 1.16

This duhkha anagata is heya through sadhana.


“This suffering yet to come is to be avoided through practice.”

Chapter 2: Sadhana

Sutra 2.1

The sadhanamarga is the abhyasa of viveka, vairagya, and mumukshutva.


“The practical path is the repetition of discernment, non-attachment, and seeking liberation.”

Sutra 2.2

Vidya is samadrishti of the drashta and the drishya.


“Wisdom is equal vision of the seer and the seen.”

Sutra 2.3

Vidya is kshetra of the uttara bheshajas.


“Wisdom is the field of the other remedies.”

Sutra 2.4

Viveka is vichchhedana svarupa from asmita.


“Discernment is distinguishing one’s true nature from egoism.”

Sutra 2.5

Vairagya is vaitrishnya for ragadvesha.


“Non-attachment is lack of desire for attachment and aversion.”

Sutra 2.6

Mumukshutva is jayana abhinivesha.


“Seeking liberation is overcoming inertia.”

Sutra 2.7

Abhyasa is sthita yatna.


“Repetition is steady effort.”

Sutra 2.8

When sevita for a dirgha kala with satkara and nairantarya, there is a dridha bhumi.


“When followed for a long time with reverence and without interruption, there is a stable foundation.”

Sutra 2.9

The ashtanga of sadhana are the yamas, the niyamas, asana, pranayama, pratyahara, dharana, dhyana, and samadhi.


“The eight limbs of practice are the restraints, the observances, sitting, energy extension, withdrawal, concentration, meditation, and absorption.”

Sutra 2.10

The yamas, the niyamas, asana, pranayama, and pratyahara are karma, bhakti, and jnana.


“The restraints, the observances, sitting, breath control, and withdrawal are action, devotion, and knowledge.”

Sutra 2.11

And these traya ekatra are bahiryoga, which is prakrita and sakriya.


“And these three together are outer yoga, which is material and active.”

Sutra 2.12

The yamas are ahimsa, satya, asteya, brahmacharya, and aparigraha.


“The restraints are non-harming, non-lying, non-stealing, non-wasting, and non-possessiveness.”

Sutra 2.13

The niyamas are shaucha, samtosha, tapas, svadhyaya, and ishvarapranidhana.


“The observances are purity, contentment, self-discipline, self-study, and devotion to the oversoul.”

Sutra 2.14

These dasha mahavratas are sarvabhauma and anavachchinna by jati, kala, desha, or samaya.


“These ten great vows are universal and not limited by birth, time, space, or circumstance.”

Sutra 2.15

Ahimsa is the patha of avara himsa.


“Non-harming is the path of least harm.”

Sutra 2.16

Satya is prameya vach.


“Non-lying is verifiable speech.”

Sutra 2.17

Asteya is adana eva what is svairakam datta.


“Non-stealing is taking only what is freely given.”

Sutra 2.18

Brahmacharya is rakshana of prana.


“Non-wasting is preservation of energy.”

Sutra 2.19

Aparigraha is tyaga of nishkarana arthas.


“Non-possessiveness is renunciation of unnecessary objects.”

Sutra 2.20

Shaucha is bhutashuddhi.


“Purification is clearing the elements.”

Sutra 2.21

Samtosha is avyathya antahshanti.


“Contentment is unwavering inner peace.”

Sutra 2.22

Tapas is pragrahana the indriyas.


“Self-discipline is reining in the senses.”

Sutra 2.23

Svadhyaya is atmavichara.


“Self-study is self-inquiry.”

Sutra 2.24

Ishvarapranidhana is anuvritti ishvara.


“Devotion to the oversoul is emulating it.”

Sutra 2.25

Asana is the sthira, sukha sthana of dhyana.


“Sitting is the still, comfortable position of meditation.”

Sutra 2.26

With shaithilya of prayatna, sthulasharira merges into pranamayakosha.


“With relaxation of effort, the gross body merges into the energy sheath.”

Sutra 2.27

Then one is anabhighata by that dvamdva.


“Then one is untroubled by that pair of opposites.”

Sutra 2.28

Being asita, pranayama is the vichcheda of the gati of shvasa and prashvasa.


“Being seated, energy extension is the interruption of the procession of inhalation and exhalation.”

Sutra 2.29

The vritti traya of pranayama are bahya, abhyantara, and stambha.


“The three activities of energy extension are external, internal, and pause.”

Sutra 2.30

Prana is dirgham and sukshmam paridrishta by desha, kala, and samkhya.


“Breath is slowly and subtly directed by place, time, and number.”

Sutra 2.31

The chaturtha vritti is akshepin the purva traya by juhvana the apana to the prana and the prana to the apana.


“The fourth activity is transcending the previous three by offering the downward breath to the upward breath and the upward breath to the downward breath.”

Sutra 2.32

Thus, the avarana over the prakasha is kshina.


“Thus, the veil over the light is destroyed.”

Sutra 2.33

Pratyahara is the asamprayoga of the indriyas from their vishayas.


“Withdrawal is the disassociation of the senses from their objects.”

Sutra 2.34

Then the indriyas are under the parama vashyata.


“Then the senses are under the highest control.”

Sutra 2.35

And there is yogyata for dharana.


“And there is fitness for concentration.”

Sutra 2.36

Dharana, dhyana, and samadhi ekatra are antaryoga, which is paurusha and nishkriya.


“Concentration, meditation, and absorption together are inner yoga, which is spiritual and inactive.”

Sutra 2.37

Dharana is the bandha of the chitta on a vritti.


“Concentration is the binding of the conscious nature on a modification.”

Sutra 2.38

Dhyana is the ekatanata of that vritti in the devata.


“Meditation is the continuation of that modification in the divine nature.”

Sutra 2.39

Samadhi is the nirbhasa of that vritti in the karanata.


“Absorption is the appearance of that modification in the causal nature.”

Sutra 2.40

Antaryoga and bahiryoga ekatra are rajayoga.


“Inner yoga and outer yoga together are royal yoga.”

Chapter 3: Sadhaka

Sutra 3.1

The sadhakamarga is ekagra ishvarapranidhana.


“The adept path is one-pointed surrender to the oversoul.”

Sutra 3.2

Ishvara is the purusha-vishesha aparamrishta by the kleshas.


“The oversoul is the individualized spirit untouched by the afflictions.”

Sutra 3.3

It is the niratishaya bija of sarvajnana.


“It is the unsurpassed seed of all knowledge.”

Sutra 3.4

Anavachcheda by kala, it is the adiguru.


“Undivided by time, it is the first teacher.”

Sutra 3.5

It is the vachaka of pranava, which is the adishasana.


“It is the reciter of om, which is the first instruction.”

Sutra 3.6

It is japita with bhavana of its artha.


“It is repeated with contemplation of its meaning.”

Sutra 3.7

From that comes the abhava of the antarayas to the adhigama of pratyakchetana.


“From that comes the destruction of the obstacles to the attainment of inner consciousness.”

Sutra 3.8

Thus, the shabda-srota is apanna.


“Thus, the sound-current is entered.”

Sutra 3.9

The udaya through the srota is the anubhava of iti iti.


“The ascent through the stream is the experience of ‘this, that’.”

Sutra 3.10

Samadrishti is viniyukta to the paurusha and prakrita trayas.


“Equal vision is applied to the spiritual and material triads.”

Sutra 3.11

Then the sushupti avastha is buddha.


“Then the deep sleep state is awakened.”

Sutra 3.12

And the pratiyogi kshanas of the kalachakra reach the aparanta of krama.


“And the dependent moments of the wheel of time reach the final end of succession.”

Sutra 3.13

Thus, the nihshabda srota is apanna.


“Thus, the silent stream is entered.”

Sutra 3.14

Samadrishti is viniyukta to purusha and prakriti.


“Equal vision is applied to spirit and nature.”

Sutra 3.15

Thus, the mahasagara of kaivalya is apanna.


“Thus, the great ocean of absolute unity is entered.”

Sutra 3.16

Tat tvam asi.


“Thou art that.”